Introduction to the compulsory licensing mechanism of US music copyrights

With digital music industry rising and flourishing these years, in 1995 the US Congress amended the compulsory licensing regulations in the US Copyright Act to include digital music service in the scope of compulsory licensing. By doing so, it tries to save the industry from deprivation in copyright negotiations and to prevent detrimental effects on music circulation. By introducing the compulsory licensing regulations for music copyrights in the US Copyright Act, this paper wishes to provide a reference for the Taiwanese government to amend Taiwan’s copyright act to promote the development of the digital music industry.

I. Exclusive rights in digital music copyright

According to the US Copyright, the copyright owner has the exclusive rights to do and to authorize any of the following1:

  • To reproduce the copyrighted work in copies or phonorecords;
  • To prepare derivative works based upon the copyrighted work;
  • To distribute copies or phonorecords of the copyrighted work to the public by sale or other transfer of ownership, or by rental, lease, or lending;
  • In the case of literary, musical, dramatic, and choreographic works, pantomimes, and motion pictures and other audiovisual works, to perform the copyrighted work publicly;
  • In the case of literary, musical, dramatic, and choreographic works, pantomimes, and pictorial, graphic, or sculptural works, including the individual images of a motion picture or other audiovisual work, to display the copyrighted work publicly; and
  • In case of sound recordings, to perform the copyrighted work publicly by means of digital music transfer.

If it is to be enforced by law that musical works can only be provided after the approval and authorization of the copyright owner, this will be unfavorable for the circulation of musical works. In terms of users, this may mean additional difficulties in providing musical works. Therefore, in addition to negotiating with the copyright owner of the licensing affairs, the US Copyright Act prescribes the compulsory licensing system. As long as the form of use does not violate any terms specified in the Copyright Act, service providers may obtain a license by means of compulsory licensing in order to lawfully “distribute copies or phonorecords of the copyrighted work to the public by sale or other transfer of ownership, or by rental, lease, or lending.2

1. Scope of compulsory license

According to Section 115 of the US Copyright Act, limitation on compulsory licensing comprises two sections3:

(1) The scope of compulsory licensing is limited to the “exclusive rights provided by clauses (1) and (3) of section 106”; i.e. “to distribute copies or phonorecords of the copyrighted work to the public by sale or other transfer of ownership, or by rental, lease, or lending.”
(2) A compulsory license can only be applied for unless the copyrighted works are
  • Non-dramatic musical works;
  • phonorecords of a non-dramatic musical work which have been distributed to the public in the United States under the authority of the copyright owner; and
  • phonorecords made by a person whose primary purpose is to distribute them to the public for private use.
(1) The scope of compulsory licensing is limited to the “exclusive rights provided by clauses (1) and (3) of section 106”; i.e. “to distribute copies or phonorecords of the copyrighted work to the public by sale or other transfer of ownership, or by rental, lease, or lending.”
(2) A compulsory license can only be applied for unless the copyrighted works are
  • Non-dramatic musical works;
  • phonorecords of a non-dramatic musical work which have been distributed to the public in the United States under the authority of the copyright owner; and
  • phonorecords made by a person whose primary purpose is to distribute them to the public for private use.
(1) The scope of compulsory licensing is limited to the “exclusive rights provided by clauses (1) and (3) of section 106”; i.e. “to distribute copies or phonorecords of the copyrighted work to the public by sale or other transfer of ownership, or by rental, lease, or lending.”
(2) A compulsory license can only be applied for unless the copyrighted works are
  • Non-dramatic musical works;
  • phonorecords of a non-dramatic musical work which have been distributed to the public in the United States under the authority of the copyright owner; and
  • phonorecords made by a person whose primary purpose is to distribute them to the public for private use.

Later on, to facilitate the application of the emerging digital sound delivery technology and the development of the digital music industry, in 1995 the US Congress passed the Digital Performance Right in Sound Recording Act of 1995 (DPRA) by which Section 115 of the Copyright Act was amended and the Digital Phonorecord Deliveries (DPD) was added. Based on these, the DPD can enjoy compulsory licensing to deliver digital music service.

2. Entitlement of compulsory license

Any person who wishes to obtain a compulsory license shall, before or within thirty days after making the recording, and before distributing any phonorecords of the work, serve notice of intention to do so on the copyright owner. The notice shall comply, in form, content, and manner of service, with the requirements that the Register of Copyrights shall prescribe by regulation. If the registration or other public records of the Copyright Office do not identify the copyright owner and include an address at which the notice can be served, it shall be sufficient to file the notice of intention in the Copyright Office4. After obtaining the compulsory license, service providers shall deliver to the copyright owner or its designated collecting agent the information relating to the royalty of the month and the successes or failures of downloading within twenty days from the end of every month5. If service owners are unable to identify how to deliver the royalty to the copyright owner, the collecting agent shall keep the royalties for the compulsorily licensed nondramatic musical works for three years in an independent trust account. The collecting agent shall assume no responsibility for the safekeeping of such royalties if the copyright owner is unreachable within three years6.

3. Royalty for compulsory license

The criteria for calculating the royalty of compulsory license are established by the Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panel formed by the Librarian of Congress. This panel updates the calculation criteria on a biennial basis. The calculation can be done by minute or by work. Applicants must pay the highest royalty calculated with either of the schemes7.

4. Limitation of compulsory license

A compulsory licensee shall only reproduce or distribute specific sound recordings and shall not use the work in the making of phonorecords duplicating a sound recording fixed by another; unless the making of the phonorecords was authorized by the owner of the copyright in the sound recording or such sound recording was fixed lawfully.8

II. Conclusions

Though compulsory licensing terms have been specified in the Copyright Law of Taiwan, users only need to apply for a compulsory license for sound recordings published for a full six months and the sound recording is used in the making of other musical works for sale9. In this case, the digital music industry will be unable to obtain a compulsory license to deliver lawful services, and negotiation with the copyright owner has thus become a prerequisite for service providers to deliver lawful services. As a result, service providers often become the weaker side of the negotiation and must pay the copyright owner a very substantial royalty. Consequently, the cost of the services will increase. In the future, if the government can amend the copyright law to include the reproduction and delivery of digital music in the scope of compulsory license of sound recordings with reference to the compulsory license terms for sound recordings in the US Copyright Act, service providers can have other access to obtain a license for sound recordings to deliver lawful digital music service other than negotiations with the copyright owner. It is believed that this will promote the fair royalties of sound recording licensing in Taiwan and the development of digital music application service industry in Taiwan.


17 U.S.C.A. §§ 106
17 U.S.C.A. §§ 115
17 U.S.C.A. §§ 115(a)(1).
17 U.S.C.A. §§ 115(b)(1).
17 U.S.C.A. §§ 115(c)(5).
68 FR 57815
See the following for details of royalty criteria for compulsory license: U.S. Copyright Office, Mechanical License Rates-Copyright Royalty Rates Section 115, the Mechanical License, available at http://www.copyright.gov/carp/m200a.html (last visited 2007/8/17)
17 U.S.C.A. §§ 115(a)(1).
Article 69, Copyright Law.

※Introduction to the compulsory licensing mechanism of US music copyrights,STLI, https://stli.iii.org.tw/en/article-detail.aspx?no=105&tp=2&i=169&d=6128 (Date:2021/02/26)
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Challenges and Opportunities from Digital Convergence

Preface With the blooming of IT technologies, the term of “digital convergence” represents the whole atmosphere at this moment. “Digital convergence”—means that after telecommunication and broadcasting systems are following the IP based framework, contents and services, those were easy to define, turn to be confused. Relying on the uniform platform, operators are able to provide services to different systems. Services containing VoIP, IPTV or the latest terms of “Multi-screen Ecosystem” and “Connected TV” are all involved in the “digital convergence” notion. Today, no matter the service of “check in” or “watching TV programs on Smartphone,” any figures about multiple services on different devices are presenting the “digital convergence” effect. On the consumer side, “digital convergence” brings a fascinating imagination of life. Time and space are no more limitations to people for getting information. Consumers select services only depending on the quality of each service. However, the fascinating imagination of customers becomes a pressure to the relative industries. In the past, because of distinctive transmission technique, services of television, internet and information were regarded as in different industries. Effective competitors only appeared in the same industry. However, today “digital convergence” effect results in crossing-industries competition and customer immigration. To accommodating and pursue the new trend, only unique ideas and novel services can help incumbents to survive. “Digital convergence” brings not only a challenge but also an opportunity. Today, user-friendly application services are cumulatively created and accommodated in the mature broadband network. For examples, high quality entertainment services occur after communication and multimedia broadcasting techniques are improved, “Near Field Communication” technology rising causes new types of cash flow services. 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In this program, there were six main goals containing: (1) complement the broadband superhighway infrastructure; (2) initiate the convergence of telecommunication services; (3) accelerate the process of Television digitization; (4) develop emerging internet video services; (5) improve communication industries; and (6) establish an integrity regulation framework, as well as twenty-one improving tactics and seventy-eight measures for crossing- administrations cooperation and negotiation to be declared. Otherwise, Executive Yuan also established DCTF to be responsible for coordinating every effort from every administration and facilitate digital convergence tasks. Latter, we will make further descriptions for the six main goals, we just mentioned above: A.Complement the broadband superhighway infrastructure According to the Global Information Technology Report 2010-2011, proposed by World Economic Forum (WEF), Taiwan on the Network Readiness Index (NRI) item was been ranked at 6th place and at 5th place on another item of highest FTTH/FTTB penetration. However, though our coverage of broadband network was high, the total bandwidth was still insufficient to contain all the new creating services. To resolving the shortage of bandwidth, including Ministry of the Interior (MOI), Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA), Ministry of Transportation and Communications (MOTC) and National Communications Commission (NCC) were convened to extend the national fiber coverage and facilitate the installation upgrade. Regarding wireless broadband construction, administrations including MOEA, MOTC and NCC were under obligation to energetically detect the latest developments of wireless telecommunication technologies as well as proposed guidelines from other countries, concerning about the allocation of spectrum, telephone numbers and IP address resources. Through crossing-administrations cooperation and coordination, in December 2011, the total of national subscribers applying fiber network service had achieved 3.31 million houses, besides, there were 24.58% houses in Taiwan possessed 100Mbps broadband network services. Totally, there were 7.88 million wireless broadband accounts being applied. B.Initiate the convergence of telecommunication services Smartphone booming brought an emerging mobile entertainment life style, furthermore, it also accelerated the rising of mobile value-added application services. To this trend, administrations containing MOEA, Financial Supervisory Commission (FSC) and NCC all devoted to establishing a constructive environment, with providing assists and building up a complete regulation framework. For examples, up to the end of 2011, national telecommunication operators had signed a memorandum with EasyCard Corporation to develop a mobile cash flow platform, which allows cash flowing through the Internet, for giving people a more convenient experience. C.Accelerate the process of Television digitization Within various emerging application services, “Television digitization” might be the most important one in people’s life. “Television digitization” service brought not only a higher quality experience of watching programs, but also created extra demands of relative application services. Furthermore, increasing demands also bought an improvement to the industry and simultaneously accelerating the development of digital content industry. Nationwide terrestrial TV signal switching program, a fully signal switching from analog to digital, has accomplished in July 2012. In order to achieve 90% coverage rate of digital signal transmission, accommodations containing Council of Indigenous People (CIP) and NCC were not only devoted to establishing a Digitization Improvement Station, but also attempt to integrate all signals from original terrestrial TV stations into one satellite to transmit. To accomplish this signal switching program, government had cultivated for many years and try to increase people’s acceptance level of high definition (HD) TV service. Before receiving this success, NCC had spent a long time devoting itself to integrating containing every effort from many administrations and associations, such as the local governments, national industry associations and operators of household application, moreover, as well as Public Enterprises, including Taiwan Power Company, Chunghwa Post Corporation and Taiwan Water Corporation to popularizing this program. Nevertheless, about the digitization program of cable TV, up to 2010, though there were already 60% of houses in Taiwan possessing cable TV service, only 5.55% of cable TV houses switched into digital. As a result, we found that no incentive measures might be the crucial reason. To reverse the impasse, our strategy was to amend the current laws, through adjusting the regulation framework we could facilitate the market into effective competition. In addition, to accelerate the cable TV digitization process, government also regarded the Olympic relaying in England as a turning point to create the demands of HD TV service. After getting the franchise, people are able to watch Olympic Games through any platforms, including terrestrial TV, cable TV and even IPTV. As the demands arising, it would also encourage operators to produce more HD programs afterward. D.Develop emerging internet video services Digital convergence effect also caused the emerging internet video services booming. In order to encourage the crossing-platforms video services and achieve 50% user rate in 2015, there were three guidelines been proposed. The first one was emerging video service regulation reforming, the second one was facilitating integration between emerging accessing approaches and distribution channels, and the third one, developing a rational regulation on contents management. In synchromesh with terrestrial TV signal switching program, emerging internet video services were also assigned to provide HD Olympic Games programs. In that period, the subscribers of Chunghwa Telecom’s MOD (Multimedia on Demand) service were able to watch the Olympic Games relaying on 14 free HD channels and 1 free 3D channel, which is provided by ELETA TV. Moreover, they could also receive the programs on demand through internet or Smartphone. Afterward, from the collected data, we found that even though the rate of new subscribers only had a few rise, an obviously rose presented on the turning on rate. Depended on those data, we believe that people had already been more familiar with IPTV and HD programs. Besides, this relaying program totally attracted 95 individual advertising and the total revenue from advertising was NT$ 80 million dollars. E.Improve communication industries Producing prolific contents is the key element for attracting customers and stabilizing the development of digital convergence industry. To facilitate the contents producing, DCDP proposed three elements to be improved: fund, talent and marketing. And the tasks of these three elements were including investment facilitation, marketing skill reinforce, personal training as well as culture protection, consumer’s right protection, technique standardization and transnational cooperation. To assist in industries transformation, MOEA focused on promoting the APP design and upgrades. Recently, measures provided by MOEA, such as transformation counseling, R&D subsidies, drive-by VC investment, personal training and even the R&D loan had already taken effect. In addition, to create a virtuous investment circles in contents industry, government also considered to release more subsidies to encouraged those superior producers and movie makers. F.Establishing an integrity regulation framework Digital convergence effect accelerated the competition in the market, including communication or relative contents industries were enter a transformation era. In this period, it was essential to have a practical and integrity regulation framework. Recently, NCC hastened to undertake the amendments of three Acts, containing Radio and Television Act, Cable Radio and Television Act and Satellite Broadcasting Act. Actually, the expectation of this undertaking was to adopt the adjustment of digital convergence in 2014. In addition, Fair Trade Commission (FTC) and Intellectual Property Office (IPO) would also continue to observe the digital convergence influences in 4C (telecommunication, cable television, computer network and e-commerce) and contents (copyright) industries. 2.Second Edition of DCDP and Primly Policies Indicators Advance Since DCDP was launched, it has caused a tremendous response. Nevertheless, rapidly advanced ICT technologies inspire people’s expectations. Recently, it has already overtaken the anticipations of used DCDP. Therefore, to formulate a prescient version, Executive Yuan adopted the second edition of DCDP 2010-2015 in May 2012. In the second edition, an item of “producing prolific TV programs” is added to be the seventh main subjects, in addition, there are five extra items added in the improving tactics part; moreover, the number of measures increased to 107 items. Digital convergence indicators are also reformulated. First, 100Mbps wired broadcasting service should achieve 100% in 2013, and the second, accomplishing 100% digitization of cable TV in 2014. To achieve these indicators, relative administrations decide to accelerate the network infrastructure complementing process and cable TV digitization process. Simultaneously, they also consider extending their regulatory scale from emerging internet video services to the connected TV industries, and enhancing superior programs producing by policy making. In point of accelerating network infrastructure complementing process, a complete broadband network is a foundation of digital convergence industry. However, a “complete” network indicates not only the non-discriminatory access to the hardware, but also mention about having reasonable prices to access broadband services. By considering of Telecommunication operators and cable TV operators are both provides of broadband services, the digitization issue of cable TV industry is also concerned in the DCDP. As a primary enemy to Telecommunication operators in the convergence market, cable TV operators’ competitiveness does not come from the their large share on the cable TV market, but from their possession of wide spread cable network. Otherwise, various new creating contents and application are also encouraged in the DCDP. With “Smart TV,” “HDTV” and “Connected TV” booming, “TV” has transformed from a passive receiving media to an information transport. Although, those emerging broadcasting techniques might threaten the traditional television industry, they bring positive influences to the media industry. By considering a well-run development must building on a integrity and friendly regulation framework. DCTF, an office established by Exclusive Yuan, will also take its responsible to assist NCC on the digital convergence regulatory issues. 3.Conclusion Digital convergence effect to us is a turbulence but also a moment. Today, this effect, which originally comes from the techniques convergence, has detonated in different nations and various places; crossing-industries competition turns to be more and more common around the world. To accommodate our nation to this trend, the primary strategy proposed by government is to integrate administrations’ effort. Through policies making, including DCDP upgrading and validly relative regulation frameworks amending, every relative industry is able to restore enough energy and seize the moment, further, naturally turns to be a domain of market competition.

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Notification System (1)Computer Emergency Response Team Coordination Center The Computer Emergency Response Team Coordination Center (CERT/CC) run by Carnegie Mellon University is the oldest and most important early-warning organization for information security in the USA. With its experts studying internet vulnerabilities and risk assessment released regularly, it reminds people of the possible dangers which exist in the information age and the need to improve internet security. (2)US Computer Emergency Readiness Team The US Computer Emergency Readiness Team (US-CERT) was established in 2003. It is responsible for protecting the infrastructure of the internet in America and for coordinating and providing response support and defense against national cyber attacks. It interacts with federal agencies, industry, the research community, state government, and others to disseminate reasoned and actionable cyber security information to the public. (3)Federal Bureau of Investigation The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the first early warning center of critical infrastructure at the national level, is responsible for providing the information pertinent to legal execution presently and also taking responsibility for the investigation of cyber crime. (4)Information Sharing and Analysis Centers Currently, industry in America, including finance, telecommunications, energy, traffic, water resources, together established individual Information Sharing and Analysis Centers (ISACs) based on the policy made in PDD-63. The ISAC of the financial system established in October 1999 being the first established center. These ISACs further work together to form an ISAC Council to integrate the information from each of them and improve their interaction and information sharing. 3. 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(2) Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 19863 The Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA) was enacted and implemented in 1986. It mainly regulates computer fraud and abuse. The Act states that it is against the law for anyone to access a protected computer without authorization. However, it also recognizes the fact that accessing a computer system of electronic and magnetic records does not mean a violation of the law. According to the CFAA, what is needed is one of the following requirements to be the wrongful conduct regulated in the Act: (1) whoever intentionally accesses a computer to obtain specific information inside the government or whoever has influenced the transmission function of the computer system; (2) whoever intentionally accesses a computer to obtain a protected database (including the information contained in a financial record of a financial institution or of a card issuer, or the information contained in a file of a consumer reporting agency on a consumer, or the information from any department of agency of the United States, or the conduct involving an interstate transaction); (3) whoever intentionally accesses any nonpublic computer of a department or agency of the United States, and causes damage. In addition, the Act also prohibits conduct such as transmitting malicious software, and defrauding traffic in any password or similar information. For any person who suffers damage or loss by reason of a violation of the law, he/she may maintain a civil action to obtain compensatory damages and injunctive relief or other equitable relief. However, the Computer Abuse Amendment Act (1994) expands the above Act, planning to include the conduct of transmitting viruses and malicious program into the norms whose regulatory measures were adopted by the USA Patriot Act enacted in October 20014 (3) Homeland Security Act of 20025 The Homeland Security Act provides the legal basis for the establishment of the Department of Homeland Security and integrates relevant federal agencies into it. The Act also puts information analysis and measures of critical infrastructure protection into the norm. And, the norm in which private institutions are encouraged to voluntarily share with DHS the information security message of important critical infrastructure is regulated in the Critical Infrastructure Information Act: Procedures for Handling Critical Infrastructure Information. According to the Act, the DHS should have the obligation to keep the information provided by private institutions confidential, and this information is exempted from disclosure by the Freedom of Information Act. (4) Freedom of Information Act Many critical infrastructures in America are regulated by governmental laws, yet they are run by private institutions. Therefore, they should obey the law and provide the government with the operation report and the sensitive information related with critical infrastructure. However, knowing that people can file a request at will to review relevant data from the government agencies based on the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), then the security of national critical infrastructure may be exposed to the danger of being attacked. Therefore, the critical infrastructure, especially the information regarding the safety system, early warning, and interdependent units, are all exempted by the Freedom of Information Act. (5) Terrorism Risk Insurance Act of 20026 After the 911 Incident, Congress in America passed the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act to establish the mechanism to underwrite terrorism risk insurance, in which insurance companies are required to provide terrorism attack risk insurance and the federal government will also cover part of loss for severe attacks. 1.http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/structure/editorial_0794. shtm (last accessed at 21. 07. 2009). 2.http://www.thei3p.org/ (last accessed at 21. 07. 2009). 3.http://www.panix.com/~eck/computer-fraud-act. html (last accessed at 21. 07. 2009). 4.Mark G. Milone, Hacktivism:Securing the National Infrastructure, 58 Bus. Law, 389-390, 2002. 5.http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/hr_5005_enr.pdf (last accessed at 21. 07. 2009). 6.http://www.ustreas.gov/offices/domestic-finance/financial-institution/terrorism-insurance/pdf/hr3210.pdf (last accessed at 21. 07. 2009).

The Research on Cybersecurity Risks in 5G network: Perspectives on Global strategy

The Research on Cybersecurity Risks in 5G network: Perspectives on Global strategy I. The characteristics of 5G and cybersecurity threats   Compared to 4G, 5G adopts several new designs on the network architecture, such as software-defined networking (SDN), a baseband unit (BBU), logical disjunction, network function virtualization (NFV), and multi-access edge computing (MEC), to provide users with high-speed, low-latency and other quality services, as well as flexibility and expansibility to accommodate more emerging applications.   According to the three key usage scenarios (see Figure 1) defined by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), enhanced mobile broadband access (eMBB) provides high-volume mobile broadband services such as AR/VR or ultra-high-definition video. Massive machine type communication (mMTC) provides large-scale IoT services. Ultra-reliability and low latency communication (uRLLC) can be used for services that require low-latency and high-reliability connections, including unmanned driving and industrial automation.   However, with 5G’s open, flexible and extensible design, as well as its coexistence with other 4G and 3G systems in the early stage of commercial operation, the cybersecurity threats facing 5G networks are more severe and diverse than the past mobile phone generations. At present, the known 5G cybersecurity threats mainly come from network functional components and connection interfaces among components, including the terminal device, access network, air interface, cloud virtualization, multi-access edge computing rental, core network, back-end/backbone network, roaming and external services, and so on. Source: ITU Figure 1Three key 5G scenarios by the ITU II. Cybersecurity strategy development in major countries   5G is not only one of the critical infrastructures, but also an important foundation for pursuing a digital nation, digital economy, the industrial 4.0, and for promoting industrial transformation for upgrading. However, different scenarios require different cybersecurity protection levels, which poses great challenges to both mobile network operators and service providers.   Therefore, the construction of favorable environment for 5G development, the promotion of relevant applications and the development of innovative services and so on, have become the priority of governance in the countries around the world. 1. European Union (EU)   Then European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker noted in 2017 that “Cyber-attacks can be more dangerous to the stability of democracies and economies than guns and tanks…Cyber-attacks know no borders and no one is immune,” indicating the EU's high priority in the cybersecurity field.   The "Digital Single Market," an important EU policy, lays the foundation for digital economy based on "cybersecurity, trust and privacy." In response to the loss of billions of euros a year in cyber attacks, the EU has taken a series of measures to safeguard and advance the development of the Digital Single Market. For the purposes of this strategy, the European Commission in 2018 came up with the policy of Resilience, Deterrence and Defence: Building strong cybersecurity for the EU,[1]with the aim of improving the level of cyber security, cyber resilience and trust in the EU, and in June 2019 passed the Cybersecurity Act [2] with two highlights described as follows: (1) Strengthen the authority of the European Union Agency for Network and Information Security (ENISA)(see Figure 2), increase the allocation of human and financial resources to ENISA, as well as the preparation for the work items related to the cybersecurity industry, and reinforce cyber security support for EU member states. (2) Establish the EU cybersecurity certification framework. [3]   In the European Union, where different cybersecurity certification schemes already exist, the absence of a common certification regime would increase the risk of fragmentation of the single market. For this reason, a set of technical requirements, standards and procedures are provided under this framework to assess whether information/communication products, services and processes are in compliance with security requirements.   The certification program includes product and service categories, information/communication security requirements (e.g. reference standards or technical specifications), types of assessment (e.g. self-assessment or third-party assessment), levels of security, and so on. All member states agree that certification not only facilitate cross-border business transactions, but also enable consumers to better understand the security of products and services. Source: Compiled from the ENISA websit Figure 2 ENISA organization and authority strengthening 2. the United States (U.S.)   In consideration of cyber security affairs in the country, the US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) in May 2018 unveiled the "Cybersecurity Strategy,"[4] which focused on the objectives and priorities of the U.S. government in future cybersecurity protection, identifying and managing national cybersecurity risks with the overall risk management approach, and addressing security threats to the country, critical infrastructures and private enterprises, as well as preventing cybercrimes.   Then the White House in September 2018 released the National Cyber Strategy of the United States of America, [5] based on the Presidential Executive Order on Strengthening the Cybersecurity of Federal Networks and Critical Infrastructure [6] issued in May 2017, stating the strategy and position of the United States against the threat of cyber- attacks. The strategic goal aimed to, by safeguarding cybersecurity, protect the American people, the homeland, and the American way of life, to build a secure digital economic environment, to promote American prosperity, and strengthen cooperation with partners to deter malicious cyber attackers, so as to maintain peace and security, and continue to expand U.S. influence.   The department in July 2019 published the Digital Modernization Strategy [7] to announce its national defense strategy in the digital environment, including the use of cybersecurity, AI, cloud computing, blockchain and other technologies in information security protection to create a more secure, coordinated and efficient platform and improve the security of intelligence transmission and processing. 3. Canada   Public Safety Canada in June 2018 released the National Cyber Security Strategy, [8] with the vision of a sustainable, robust cybersecurity environment, innovation and prosperity. Through international cooperation and a domestic public-private partnership, the department has been working on three goals: 1. cyber security and resilience (to reduce cybercrime and ensure Internet privacy; 2. Internet innovation (to create a friendly environment for the development of cybersecurity startups); 3. government leadership and cooperation (to transfer government-owned cybersecurity knowledge to the private sector and set up a cybersecurity governance framework).   The Canadian government also attaches great importance to critical infrastructure. In May 2018, the National Cross Sector Forum 2018-2020 Action Plan for Critical Infrastructure [9] was unveiled to facilitate information sharing between public and private partners through sharing and protecting intelligence, and implementing a full risk management approach. Moreover, Public Safety Canada in April 2019 issued a report called Enhancing Canada’s Critical Infrastructure Resilience to Insider Risk, which provided guidelines and suggestions for action on internal risks in critical infrastructure organizations.[10] 4. Singapore   The government of Singapore in 2018 promulgated the Cybersecurity Act, [11] which aimed to fulfill the vision of a Smart Nation by enacting and putting into effect cybersecurity regulations to achieve the goal of a resilient infrastructure and a more secure cyberspace, and to strengthen the protection of critical information infrastructure against cyber-attacks. The Cyber Security Agency of Singapore (CSA) was given the authority to prevent and respond to cybersecurity threats, and to set up a system for sharing security information, as well as a light-touch licensing system for cybersecurity service providers.[12]   The Government of Singapore has appointed a Commissioner of Cybersecurity responsible for promoting domestic cybersecurity policy. To safeguard Singaporeans from cybersecurity threats, [13] the government particularly laid down cybersecurity threat or incident response provisions in Chapter 4 of the Cybersecurity Act to empower the Commissioner of Cybersecurity to investigate cybersecurity threats and incidents, such as requiring the parties to the incidents to present statements in person or in writing, producing documents or provide information and so on.[14] 5. Australia   The Australian government in 2016 proposed a four-year "Australia's Cyber Security Strategy,"[15] which was expected to invest more than 230 million Australian dollars to strengthen Australia's cyber security capability and complete the following five aspects: national cyber partnership, strong cyber defenses, global responsibility and influence, growth and innovation, and a cyber smart nation.   As for the global responsibility and influence, the Australian government in 2017 announced the "Australia's International Cyber Engagement Strategy."[16] which aims to strengthen digital trade, to improve cybersecurity and to response to cybercrime through international cooperation; encourage innovative cybersecurity solutions; provide security advice and best practices, such as Essential Eight strategies[17] to mitigate cyber-attacks; establish the Pacific Cyber Security Operational Network (PaCSON) [18] with neighboring countries to develop regional cybersecurity capabilities; and advance the development of Australia's cybersecurity industry, nurture startups and attract foreign investment. III. Cybersecurity strategy to promote 5G in Taiwan   Since President Tsai Ing-wen took office in 2016, she declared that cybersecurity is directly linked to national security. In 2017, the Department of Cyber Security (DCS) under the Executive Yuan issued "National Cybersecurity Development Plan (2017-2020)," and in 2018 the "Cybersecurity Industry Development Action Plan (2018-2025)," in order to enhance the independence of Taiwan's cybersecurity industry, consolidate the nation’s cybersecurity defense line, improve its innovative thinking of cyber security, and further promote it to the international market.   To develop a favorable environment to promote 5G, the Executive Yuan on May 10, 2019 approved the “Taiwan 5G Action Plan (2019-2022),” [19] with a total investment about NT$20.466 billion over a four-year period. The plan aims to build a 5G application and industrial innovation environment, and reshape Taiwan's mobile communication industry ecosystem, with its content planned around five themes, including "promoting 5G vertical application field demonstration", "building 5G innovation and application development environment," "completing 5G technology core and cybersecurity protection capabilities," "planning to release 5G frequency spectrums in line with overall interests" and "adjusting laws and regulations to create favorable environment for 5G development," and to promote industrial upgrading and transformation, as well as create the next wave of economic prosperity in Taiwan.   Secure, robust and reliable 5G systems are sufficient and requisite conditions for building an innovation ecosystem in digital countries. The third theme of the "Taiwan 5G Action Plan" is to "complete 5G technology core and cybersecurity protection capabilities," which is intended to advance the integration of applied science and technology by establishing advantageous core technologies, set up a 5G technology and test platform, and increase the market competitiveness of 5G industry, while drafting the overall national policies on 5G cybersecurity, building the cybersecurity protection mechanism of 5G homemade products, strengthening 5G critical infrastructure and operational cybersecurity protection capabilities, and promoting domestic suppliers to enter the international 5G reliable supply chain.   In terms of strengthening 5G critical infrastructure and operational cybersecurity protection capacities, the NCC has planned a four-year (2019-2022) "5G Network Cybersecurity Protection and Related Regulations Preparation Plan." In coordination with a 5G license issue in 2020, the agency in 2019 added/amended the 5G cybersecurity provisions of the Regulations for Administration of Mobile Broadband Businesses, making it mandatory for the winning bidder of the 5G frequency spectrum to incorporate the cybersecurity protection concept into the system design for system construction.   Upon commercial operation of 5G, the NCC will audit from time to time the implementation of the cybersecurity maintenance plan by telecom operators, so as to ensure and reinforce the cybersecurity protection system of Taiwan's 5G telecom network, and create an opportunity for the development of 5G homemade products with cybersecurity protection capability. In addition, the NCC will also face up to the fact that 5G technology standards continue to evolve, and the operators have different construction schedules and heterogeneous mobile networks coexist. Therefore, relevant regulations will continue to be completed from 2020 to 2022, and examples will be verified through cybersecurity function testing laboratories to ensure that cybersecurity protection functions of 5G networks keep pace with the times. IV. Conclusion and Suggestion   As for emerging technologies, countries around the world are actively evaluating and constructing 5G systems and services. Taiwan boasts excellent industrial advantages in terms of semiconductors, ICT software and hardware, and high-quality talents, and thus makes a foundation for developing 5G. Furthermore, going with the importance of cybersecurity, it is necessary to pay more attention to planning and developing 5G cybersecurity technology.   It is clear that the development of cybersecurity is both a challenge and an opportunity for Taiwan. In order to implement the national policy objectives of "cybersecurity is national security" as well as "innovative economic development programs for a digital nation," and to response to the scientific and technological progress, and the demand for cybersecurity, key development direction is proposed to expedite the establishment of 5G cybersecurity protection. Reference: [1]Resilience, Deterrence and Defence: Building strong cybersecurity in Europe, European Commission, https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/news/resilience-deterrence-and-defence-building-strong-cybersecurity-europe [2]The draft Regulation of The European Parliament And of The Council on ENISA, the "EU Cybersecurity Agency", and repealing Regulation(EU)526/2013, and on Information and Communication Technology cybersecurity certification(''Cybersecurity Act'') was published in September 2017 to expand the rights and obligations of ENISA, which would make ENISA the EU's cybersecurity and information competent authority and the authority for critical infrastructure (information) facilities after the passage of the Act. Regulation (EU) 2019/881 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 April 2019 on ENISA (the European Union Agency for Cybersecurity) and on information and communications technology cybersecurity certification and repealing Regulation (EU) No 526/2013 (Cybersecurity Act) (Text with EEA relevance), https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=uriserv:OJ.L_.2019.151.01.0015.01.ENG&toc=OJ:L:2019:151:TOC [3]The EU cybersecurity certification framework, European Commission, https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/eu-cybersecurity-certification-framework [4]Cybersecurity Strategy(2018), DHS, https://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/DHS-Cybersecurity-Strategy_1.pdf [5]National Cyber Strategy of the United States of America(2018), The White House, https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/National-Cyber-Strategy.pdf [6]THE WHITE HOUSE, Presidential Executive Order on Strengthening the Cybersecurity of Federal Networks and Critical Infrastructure, The White House, https://www.whitehouse.gov/presidential-actions/presidential-executive-order-strengthening-cybersecurity-federal-networks-critical-infrastructure/ [7]DoD Digital Modernization Strategy, DoD, https://media.defense.gov/2019/Jul/12/2002156622/-1/-1/1/DOD-DIGITAL-MODERNIZATION-STRATEGY-2019.PDF [8]National Cybersecurity Strategy, Public Safety Canada, https://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/rsrcs/pblctns/ntnl-cbr-scrt-strtg/index-en.aspx [9]National Cross Sector Forum 2018-2020 Action Plan for Critical Infrastructure, Public Safety Canada, Public Safety Canada, https://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/rsrcs/pblctns/pln-crtcl-nfrstrctr-2018-20/index-en.aspx#a02 The action plan is a three-year program under Canada's2010 National Strategy for Critical Infrastructure (National Strategy) starting in 2010 for all phases. [10]Enhancing Canada’s Critical Infrastructure Resilience to Insider Risk, Public Safety Canada, Public Safety Canada, https://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/rsrcs/pblctns/nhncng-crtcl-nfrstrctr/index-en.aspx [11]Cybersecurity Act 2018, Singapore Statutes Online, https://sso.agc.gov.sg/Acts-Supp/9-2018/ [12]Cybersecurity Act, CSA, https://www.csa.gov.sg/legislation/cybersecurity-act [13]Id. [14]Cybersecurity Act Explanatory Statement, https://www.csa.gov.sg/~/media/csa/cybersecurity_bill/cybersecurity%20act%20-%20explanatory%20statement.pdf [15]Australia’s Cybersecurity Strategy, https://cybersecuritystrategy.homeaffairs.gov.au/ What is the Government doing in cybersecurity, Ministers for the Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, https://www.industry.gov.au/data-and-publications/australias-tech-future/cyber-security/what-is-the-government-doing-in-cyber-security [16]Australia’s International Cyber Engagement Strategy, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade,https://www.dfat.gov.au/sites/default/files/DFAT%20AICES_AccPDF.pdf [17]Essential Eight Explained, ACSC, https://www.cyber.gov.au/publications/essential-eight-explained [18]Pacific Cybersecurity Operational Network(PaCSON), https://dfat.gov.au/international-relations/themes/cyber-affairs/cyber-cooperation-program/Pages/pacific-cyber-security-operational-network-pacson.aspx Or Strengthening cybersecurity across the Pacific, ACSC, https://www.cyber.gov.au/news/pacific-islands PaCSON is comprised of 15 members, including Australia, Fiji, Marshall Islands, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, and Solomon Islands. [19]Taiwan 5G Action Plan, Executive Yuan,https://www.ey.gov.tw/Page/5A8A0CB5B41DA11E/087b4ed8-8c79-49f2-90c3-6fb22d740488

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