In the "Action Plan on Information Security Measures for Critical Infrastructure" promulgated by the Information Security Policy Council (ISPC) in 2005, critical infrastructure is defined as: Critical infrastructure which offers the highly irreplaceable service in a commercial way is necessary for people's normal lives and economic activities, and if the service is discontinued or the supply is deficient or not available, it will seriously influence people's lives and economic activities. Based on the definition of the action plan, the critical infrastructure contains: telecommunication systems, administration services of the government, finance, civil aviation, railway, logistics, power, gas, water, and medical services
The issues regarding the CIIP are gradually being developed with the norm of information social security policy in Japan. Adopting the Action Plan of the Basic Guidelines Toward the Promotion of an Advanced Information and Telecommunications Society of 1998 proposed by the Japanese government in 1998 as a basis. The Japanese government keeps presenting polices of improvement for the relevant issues in order to acquire the stable development of telematics and telecommunications. Several years later, the Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry (METI) announced the Comprehensive Strategy on Information Security in 2003. The formulation of the strategy not only emphasizes the possible telematics-related risks and protection against threats that may be encountered in the information society, but it also enhances the level of information security to the level of national security and presents a comprehensive information security improvement program. Furthermore, the submission of the strategy has identified government’s responsibility in the development of information security Therefore, a division which is solely responsible for information security was established in the Cabinet Secretariat and is devoted to the development of it.
In 2005, the Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry (METI) amended the Comprehensive Strategy on Information Security and announced the First National Strategy on Information Security based on the creation of a policy of a long-term information security task in Japan which is also the foundation for the policy of guidelines and action security concerning critical information infrastructure. This is in addition to being the most important basis for the policy of information security development. The strategy is different from the Comprehensive Strategy on Information Security in connotation. In the range of information security protection, it not only maintains information security from the perspective of the government; for instance, to divide the rights and duties on information security protection practices between the central government and the local government, and to strengthen the capacity of the government to solve emergencies such as cyber attacks, but it also tries to employ the public-private partnership on the CIIP issue to construct an extensive information security protection and to develop a Capability for Engineering of Protection, Technical Operation, Analysis and Response (CEPTOAR): one similar to the ISAC of America, to strengthen the information sharing and analysis of information security of all industry involved. According to the strategy, the METI established the Information Security Policy Council (ISPC) and the National Information Security Center (NISC) under the subordination of the Cabinet Secretariat in order to reach a goal of dependable society of information security.1
Finally, the information security policies more directly related with the CIIP are the Action Plan on Information Security Measures for Critical Infrastructure and the Standards for Information Security Measures for the Central Government Computer Systems, both of which regulate CI-related threats, information security standards, public-private partnership information sharing system, and the levels of information security standards between different governments and critical infrastructures, respectively.
Generally speaking, the Cabinet Secretariat is the main division of the CIIP and the information security for the Japanese government, while the ISPC and the NISC established under the Cabinet Secretariat in 2005 are the core organizations for the development of the CIIP policy. In addition, the National Policy Agency (NPA) and the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (MIC) also played an important role in assisting the Cabinet Secretariat with critical infrastructure protection. The part of public-private partnership is covered by the CEPTOAR which takes the responsibility for information sharing and analysis of information security between the government and private organizations.
For critical infrastructure protection, Japan has set up a warning and notification system in addition to the emphasis on fundamental information security protection. With the concept of public-private partnership, various messages related with information security are analyzed and shared in order to prevent information security incidents from occurring. The network of notification system in Japan mainly consists of several organizations as listed below.
The National Incident Response Team (NIRT) which is the information security office under the Cabinet Secretariat in the organization framework belongs to the Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT)2 and is first in line in the government to handle internet emergencies. According to the Action Plan for Ensuring e-Government's IT Security, the NIRT which consists of 17 experts from the government and the private organizations is responsible to (1) accurately understand and analyze emergencies, (2) develop technical strategies to solve and rehabilitate emergencies to prevent incidents from reoccurrence, (3) provide other governmental organizations the assistance to solve the information security issue, (4) collect and analyze information or intelligence so that effective solutions and strategies may be provided when an incident happens, (5) provide the governmental organization with professional knowledge and information, and (6) enhance and improve all knowledge pertinent to information security.
The Japan Computer Emergency Response Team Coordination Center (JPCERT/cc) is the first Computer Security Incident Response Team (CSIRT) established in Japan. It consists of internet service suppliers, security products/service suppliers, governmental agencies, and associations of industry & commerce. The JPCERT/CC is also a member of the Asia Pacific Computer Emergency Response Team (APCERT) and a member of the Forum of Incident Response and Security Teams (FIRST). It coordinates and integrates prevention measures pertinent to information security and is consistent with other CSIRTs.
In Japan, besides the mechanism responsible to notify the government, which functions as a bridge for communication between it and all those outside of it, the mechanism of information sharing and notification is also established among industries to provide each with a channel for information exchange and consultation. In 2001, Japan established the Telecom Information Sharing and Analysis Center Japan (Telecom-ISAC Japan). In addition to real-time inspection for computer intrusion incidents and conducting information collection and analysis, the Telecom-ISAC Japan proposes to e-government many suggestions related with the Transact-SQL issue as well. The reasons for launching the Telecom-ISAC are to instantaneously detect a computer intrusion incident, and to instantaneously gather and analyze its information, and then exchange this with other telecom carriers and offer them relevant countermeasures for precaution; so that in can reach the goal of ensuring telecom security since it is an important infrastructure concerning social economy.
The reasons for launching the Cyber Force are to maintain the security to use the internet by regularly "patrolling" it, searching for evidence of internet crime, and to notify the critical infrastructure operators about any unusual internet use so as to prevent the occurrence of cyber terror attacks. The Cyber Force also assists operators to solve and diminish the damage and influences when an incident occurs.
The National Police Agency owns the portal site "@police". It exists to prevent large-scale cyber emergencies and to provide gathered information concerning information security to government. In addition to providing the techniques related with the safe use of computer networks, @police is also dedicated to educating internet users about the concept of information security and to increase security awareness.
Since 1990, the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) has cooperated with the JPCERT/CC and the Information Technology Promotion Agency (IPA) to provide reports on virus, intrusion, and the damage caused by them, to remind the public to pay attention.
The Unauthorized Computer Access Law includes various conducts such as cyber intrusion, and data thefts, into the norms of criminal punishment to deter cyber crimes from spreading in order to ensure the safety of the critical information infrastructure.
With the formulation of the Act on Electronic Signatures and Certification Business, the smooth promotion of the electronic signature system is ensured and the circulation and process of electronic communication can be fostered further.
Through the formulation of the Basic Law on Formation of an Advanced Information and Telecommunication Network Society, the legal basis to execute an information technology policy is enhanced, and the direction and job content for the government to execute this policy is explicitly stated.
1.http://www.nisc.go.jp/eng/pdf/national_strategy_001_eng.pdf(last accessed date: 2009/07/20).
2.http://www.nisc.go.jp/en/sisaku/h1310action.html(last accessed date: 2009/07/20).
In light of the influence on social security of Internet-related crime, in 2007 Taiwan passed the amendment to the Communication Protection and Inspection Act (CPIA) to update the articles relating to the surveillance of Internet-related crimes. Moreover, the notification obligator clause was added to the Child and Adolescent Sex Trade Prevention ACT (CASTPA), and the penalty for copyright infringement over the Internet was prescribed in the Copyright Act in order to stop Internet-related crimes. 1. Amendment to the CPIA On 15 June 2007, the legislature of Taiwan passed the amendment to the CPIA which was promulgated by the President of Republic of China on 11 July 2007. The amendment mainly concerns the update of the power of issuing surveillance warrants, the scope of emergency surveillance, the supervisory agencies of relevant surveillance activities, and the evidence power of illegal surveillance. The amendment will be brought into force in five months. Currently, a surveillance warrant is issued (1) by the district prosecutor following an application made by the police or based on his authority for cases under investigation; and (2) by the judge based on his power for cases on trial. According to Article 5.2 of the amended CPIA, for cases under investigation, the district prosecutor should record the details of surveillance in writing following the applications made by the judiciary police or based on his authority and should state the reasons and submit relevant documents before applying to the jurisdiction court for the issue of the surveillance warrant. The district prosecutor should approve and reply to the applications made by the judiciary police within 2 hours. For cases of greater complexity, the approval and reply time may be extended for another 2 hours with the consent of the chief district prosecutor. After receiving an application for a surveillance warrant from the district prosecutor, the jurisdiction court should approve and reply to the application within 24 hours. For cases on trial, a surveillance warrant should be issued by the judge based on his authority. Also, the judge may give appropriate instructions for the surveillance in the warrant. Moreover, if an application for a surveillance warrant is rejected by the court, the district prosecutor should make no objection in any form. In other words, the power of issuing a surveillance warrant for cases under investigation has been transferred from the district prosecutor to the judge. Furthermore, the law-enforcement authorities are given the right to initiate an “emergency surveillance” before application during the investigation of serious criminal cases according to Article 6 of the CPIA. In an investigation of serious criminal cases involving obstruction of voting, kidnapping, offence of the President and Vice President Election and Recall Act, the judiciary police may request the district prosecutor to orally notify the implemental authorities of an emergency surveillance. However, the district prosecutor should report to the jurisdiction court to apply for a make-up issue of the surveillance warrant within 24 hours. The district prosecutor’s office should appoint a responsible district prosecutor or a head district prosecutor as the emergency contact for cases involving emergency surveillance. The court should also assign a special window to take charge of the applications for surveillance warrants made by the district prosecutor, and should issue a make-up surveillance warrant within 48 hours of the acceptance of the application. Should the make-up surveillance warrant not be issued within 48 hours, the emergency surveillance should be terminated immediately. The district prosecutor, the court of law and agencies taking charge of the country’s intelligence work are responsible for the supervision of surveillance. According on Articles 12 and 16 of the amended CPIA, regulations governing the period and supervision of surveillance are summarized as follows: (1) The period of surveillance should not exceed 30 days for serious and emergency cases involving endangering national security or social order and blackmailing as in Article 5 of the CPIA; or for cases involving obstruction of voting, kidnapping and offence of the President and Vice President Election and Recall Act as in Article 6 of the CPIA. The responsibility of supervision is the district prosecutor's office for cases under investigation and the court of law for cases on a trial. (2) The period of surveillance should not exceed 1 year for collecting information of foreign powers or offshore opposing powers as in Article 7 of the CPIA. Intelligence authorities should send agents to supervise the electronic surveillance equipment or to the supplier of surveillance equipment to supervise the conditions of surveillance. Should continual surveillance be needed, the implemental agency should submit concrete reasons to make a second application for surveillance two days before the end of the first surveillance period. However, the surveillance should be terminated immediately when the chief of the intelligence agency believes that it is no need to continue the surveillance before the end of the surveillance period. Lastly, the exclusivity of the evidence power of information collected from illegal surveillance is added to Articles 5, 6, 7 and 32 of the amended CPIA. According to Articles 5 and 6, should the surveillance involve severe offence of regulations, the information or evidence collected from the surveillance will not be accepted as evidence in a judiciary investigation, a trial or relevant procedure. Additionally, according to Articles 7 and 32, information or evidence collected from illegal surveillance will not be accepted as evidence in a judiciary investigation, a trial or relevant procedure. The severity of the offence should be determined by the judge based on individual cases. 2. Amendment to the CASTPA Child pornography is easily distributed because of the advancement of Internet communication; and the prepubescent pornography market is expanding as a result. The legislature of Taiwan thus passed on 15 June 2007 the amendment to the CASTPA that was promulgated by the President of Republic of China on 4 July 2007. In the amendment, neighborhood heads, ISPs and telecommunication system providers are the obligator of notification, and “possessors” of child pornography are to be penalized. According to the explanatory statement of the act, child pornography is the permanent record of the abuse of the victims. This will inflict continual damage on the victims. Moreover, child pornography is considered a “serious child exploitation” all over the world. Therefore, there is an international understanding to penalize the possession of child pornography. Before the amendment, Article 28 of the statue simply penalizes people distributing and selling child pornography in the form of disc, videotape and printing. Those deliberately distributing, broadcasting and/or selling child pornography in the form of pictures, videotape, film, disc, electronic signal or other form will be penalized by imprisonment for a term of less than 2 years and with a fine of under NT$2 million. [In the amendment,] those deliberately distributing, broadcasting and/or selling child pornography are penalized and imprisonment for a term of less than 3 years and with a fine of under NT$5 million. While child pornography inflicts continual damage on the victims, Article 28.3 has been added to statute. According to this new Article, those in possession without a proper reason of pictures, films, videotapes, discs, electromagnetic recordings and/or other articles containing sexual intercourses or acts of indecency by people under 18 are to be penalized. In this case, the “possession” of child pornography is penalized. The penalization falls into two stages: competent authorities of municipalities and local counties and cities may order the offender to receive guidance education for 2-10 hours if he/she is detected possessing child pornography without a proper reason for the first time; if offenders are detected for the second time or more, they will be fined NT$20000 to NT$200000. The amendment also refers to the legislation in Canada and the Netherland to reduce the scope of “proper reasons for possession” to scientific study, education and for medical treatment purposes in order to protect prepubescent children from sexual exploitation. Moreover, the amendment has expanded the scope of the notification obligator by including ISPs and telecommunication system providers as the notification obligator. While the Internet and mobile phones are widely used by the public and prepubescent children often receive pornographic information via the chat rooms on the Internet and SMS, this will cause many side effects on prepubescent children in the absence of appropriate management and protection. According to the statistics provided by the Ministry of the Interior, about 300 prepubescent children are sexually assaulted every year from online dating. According to The Garden of Hope Foundation, 40% of sex trade with prepubescent girls found in Taipei County during 2003-5 was conducted over the Internet, and it was 100% for prepubescent boys. It is thus clear that the Internet has become a platform for distributing child pornography. ISPs and telecommunication system providers are included as the notification obligator in Article 9 of the amended statute. Therefore, if they do not notify the authorities in the knowledge of child pornography, they will be fined NT$6000-NT$30000 according to Article 36 of the statue. Therefore, neighborhood heads, ISPs and telecommunication system providers must notify the local competent authorities or authorities specified in Article 6 of any prepubescent children who engage or probably engage in the sex trade in their knowledge. This is designed in order to strengthen the notification and prevention functions and to effectively stop those who deliberately use chat rooms on the Internet and SMS to engage in true sex trade in the disguise of online dating. Though the scope of notification obligation has been expanded in the amendment to the CASTPA to strengthen the notification and prevention mechanisms of prepubescent children sex trade and to define the notification obligations of the supplier and provider of SMS, network chat rooms, BBS, blogs and e-news services, many problems arise as a result. First, when telecommunication system providers have the obligation of notification, they also need to submit relevant evidence. However, this may involve the infringement of privacy of communication. If telecommunication system providers must not commit illegal surveillance, they are unable to acknowledge the contents of communication of consumers. In this case, how can they notify any crime? On the other hand, though information over the Internet is open to the public, it is a tough question for law enforcement officers to provide solid evidence proving that the administrator of online chat rooms and blogs has failed to perform his obligation of notification. 3. Amendment to the Copyright Act The online music downloading service debate has become a heated issue in recent years for the following reasons: “to select only the songs I like”, “comprehensive repertoires”, and “convenience”. According to the Online Music Downloading Survey by the Secure Online Shopping Association (SOSA), 85% consumers have tried the online music downloading service, thus giving rise to the comprehensive online music downloading software and services. However, to attract consumers with files containing unlicensed music, video or other files and charge users of such services, some ISPs provide computer programs or technologies, e.g. point-to-point (P2P), for users to exchange such outlawed materials and charge users for such services. Such acts of making profit from copyright infringement has inflicted disputes in copyright infringement. For example, the IFPI’s accusation in 2003 of Kuro, a P2P platform provider, is the first convicted case of P2P music downloading service in Taiwan. Though the software supplied by Kuro is a neutral technology which is not illegal, Kuro recruited members and charged them membership fees for allowing them to illegally downloading, exchanging and reproducing a large amount of unlicensed copyrighted materials with such software and the platform services it supplies. Kuro also advertised that consumers can download tens of thousands of the latest popular songs with the Kuro software and even encouraged members to download them. Therefore, the court decided that Kuro and its members who have practically downloaded copyrighted music illegally are guilty of copyright infringement. On the other hand, ezPeer, another P2P downloading platform provider, was not found guilty of copyright infringement because no law was practiced at that time to prohibit or restrict the use of P2P software. Also, as a transfer platform, ezPeer offers comprehensive functions and it is thus not a tool for committing crime. Even some users transfer or download unlicensed copyrighted materials with this tool, there is possibility for the non-liability reasonable use. Moreover, ISPs have no filtering obligations in the Copyright Act of the ROC. Therefore, even consumers may use the services for illegal activities, P2P service providers are not an accomplice. Therefore, to define the liabilities of P2P platform providers, the legislature of Taiwan passed on 14 June 2007 the amendment to the Copyright Act to include P2P software providers in governance of the act. In the future, platform providers will be prohibited by the Copyright Act from charging members for unlicensed activities. New objects of copyright infringement are added to the amendment, and the amendment includes the addition of Article 87.1.7, 87.1.2, and 97.1; and the revision of Article 93.4. According to Article 87.1.7, attempt to allow the public to openly transfer or reproduce works of others without prior consent or licensing from the owner is copyright infringement, and supply of computer programs and/or technologies that can be used for public transfer and/or reproduction of such for the purpose of making profits is deemed as copyright infringement. As the supplier of computer programs and/or technologies is the focus of this article, behaviors categorized based on this article must also meet the following requirements: (1) attempt to allow the public to download and/or transfer over the Internet copyrighted materials without prior consent or licensing of the copyright owner; (2) the act of supply of computer programs and/or technologies; (3) and making profits from such behaviors. In other words, the focus of the amendment is to prohibit providers by written law from supplying computer programs and/or technologies for users to transfer and/or exchange unlicensed music, video and/or other copyrighted materials and from charging users or making profits from such services. However, the amendment has adopted the principle of technology neutrality and specifies that P2P software providers will only be penalized when they have the act of making profit and the intention of copyright infringement in order not to prevent technological development and to save ISPs from breaking the law all the time. As the “intention” of copyright infringement is the criterion of judgment, Article 87.2 is added to the Copyright Act in the present amendment. According to this article, whether or not the doer instigates, guides or incites in advertisements or other active actions the public to use the computer programs and/or other technologies it supplies to commit copyright infringement is the criterion for determining the “intention” of copyright infringement. Also, the court will determine with severity whether or not the advertisements or other active actions are ready for instigating, guiding or inciting the public use the computer programs and/or other technologies the doer supplies to commit copyright infringement. In general, when providers offer services, such as web photo albums, BBS, instant messengers, auctions, web disks and online discussions, it is not their initial intention to supply software and/or technologies for users to illegally download and/or transfer the copyrighted materials of others, nor do they encourage, instigate, guide, incite and/or convince users to commit copyright infringement. Even such software can be used for transferring and/or distributing unlicensed copyrighted materials, providers must not be restricted, and it should be the users who take the liability of copyright infringement. After the enactment of the amendment, providers who make profit from supplying software for others to distribute unlicensed copyrighted materials and encourage users to exchange such materials with the software are to be penalized by imprisonment for a term of less than 2 years, community service, or fined, or penalty together with a find of under NT$500000 according to Article 93. Moreover, by adding Article 97.1, the competent authorities are entitled to order ISPs to shutdown or close the business when they are convicted for the abovementioned offences and refuse to stop such illegal acts after being determined for “severe copyright infringement” and “severely injury of the benefits of the copyright owner”. After this amendment of the Copyright Act, service providers can no longer use the excuse “we simply provide a service platform and have no right to check the behavior of consumers” as an escape of their liabilities. In fact, P2P service providers who charge users monthly fees for the P2P software, such as Kuro and ezPeer, have already signed licensing agreements with music companies before the enactment of this amendment. Therefore, the music they provide for users to download is no more unlicensed copyrighted materials. Therefore, the amendment has certain effect on improving copyright protection.The effective and innovative way to use the spectrum: focus on the development of the "interleaved/white space"
1. Prologue Flexible and collective usage of spectrum is the mainstream in the modern times. Julius Genachowski, chairman of the Federal Communications Commission, delivered the keynote address to the CTIA-Wireless Association convention on Oct. 7, 20091. He said the U.S. government has been tripling the amount of spectrum available for commercial uses. The problem is that many industry experts predict wireless traffic will increase 30 times because of online video and other bandwidth-heavy applications. Accordingly, he warned that the shortage of spectrum would be a crisis for the on-going evolution of mobile broadband communication. Therefore, it’s critical for using precious spectrum effectively. Now, with the breakthrough of ICT, there is an alternative solution to this crisis: "application of interleaved/white space". 2. The cure for shortage of the spectrum To solve the shortage and ineffective use of scarce spectrum, developed countries have innovated technology to overcome the dilemma. Accordingly, the cognitive radio (CR) network with OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access)2 systems, namely "spectrum sensing", to use the interleaved/white space is the therapy nowadays, especially after digital switchover (DSO). CEPT (European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations) identified "white space" as a part of the spectrum, which is available for a radio-communication application (service, system) at a given time in a given geographical area on a non-interfering / non-protected basis with regard to primary services and other services with a higher priority on a national basis. Specified clearly, the wording of "White Spots" or "White Spaces" or "Interleaved Spectrum" applied by CEPT has been used to introduce a concept of frequency spectrum which is potentially available at a given time for further utilization within frequency spectrum originally planned for broadcasting in GE063. The current CEPT view is that any new white space applications should be used on a non protected non interfering basis. Further studies are required into the framework needed to enable the use of CR devices within white space spectrum. Meanwhile, Millions more — both rural and urban — couldn’t afford computers and internet access in the United States. Yet big telephone and cable companies won’t bring broadband internet to rural America. Therefore, U.S. administration takes it seriously and considers to bridge the "digital gap" via CR networks for using white space to high-speed wireless internet access in rural area. Moreover, innovative way to use the spectrum after DSO could also satisfy the demand of band immediately with National Broadband Plan which proposed by President Barack Obama. 3. The definition and function of "white/interleaved space" In a word, the spectrum licensed to commercial use or public safety is not always occupied totally all the time. Accordingly, some bands are vacant just like "white" or "interleaved". If communicators use these interleaved and fragmented bands temporally, the spectrum-usage will be more effective and the cost of the spectrum now we used will be much lower. Not only U.S but also UK regulator Ofcom has published a discussion document to explore the possibility of using interleaved spectrum to wirelessly link up different devices and offer enhanced broadband access in rural areas. The idea is based on the development of technology that could search for unoccupied radio waves between TV channels to transmit and receive wireless spectrum. Take DSO in U.S. for example, when TV goes digital in June, 2009, TV broadcasters will use only a small portion of the public airwaves they are allocated.4 This is because digital transmissions can be packed into adjacent channels, while analog ones cannot. This means that the band can be "compressed" into fewer channels, while still allowing for more transmissions, which could result in a kind of "white space" (or so-called digital dividend) mentioned above. In most rural areas, 60 to 70 percent of these digital airwaves will be vacant. It goes without saying that those bands will be idle, which will also increase the cost the spectrum-usage. However, the TV band can carry a broadband signal that penetrates buildings, travels great distances, and penetrates heavy foliage. If people could search the "spectrum hole", off course, with CR or DSA (Dynamic Spectrum Sensing), and then link up those unoccupied band for wireless communication, the compelling needs of spectrum will be eased. Most important of all, this innovative way fits the trend of collective and flexible spectrum usage in 3G/4G era. 4. The key to open "white space" Undoubtedly, the WSD (White Space Devices) is the key to open the new gate. FCC issues some R&O to test WSD for welcoming white space. On October 5, 2007, OET (the Office of Engineering and Technology) of FCC issued a public notice inviting submittal of additional prototype devices for further tests (Phase II). On February 24, 2010, OET selected Wilmington, North Carolina, for the test market for the DTV transition, and unveiled a new municipal Wi-Fi network, after a month of testing. OET permitted that TV Band has an 18-month experimental license.5 For the goal of "smart city", the network has used the white space made available by the end of analog TV transmission. Spectrum Bridge (a famous company devoted to working out WSD and solution to white space)6 has worked to make sure TV stations in the market do not receive interference (no interference issues have been reported), and the company hopes to do the same if similar service becomes nationwide. The "smart city" network will not compete with cell phone companies but will instead be used for "national purposes", including government and energy monitoring (i.e. Smart Grid). TV Band Network, made up of private investors, has put up cameras in parks, and along highways to show traffic. Other uses include water level and quality, turning off lights in ball parks, and public Wi-Fi in certain areas.7 This success has promptly encouraged those have eyed unlicensed band/devices for wireless broadband internet access, especially the White Spaces Coalition8. The White Spaces Coalition consists of eight large technology companies that originally planned to deliver high speed broadband internet access beginning in June 2009 to United States consumers via existing white space in unused television frequencies between 54-698 MHz (TV Channels 2-51). The coalition expects speeds of 80 Mbps and above, and 400 to 800 Mbps for white space short-range networking9. Therefore, the Coalition hasn’t only pushed FCC to free up the band, namely unlicensed-band approach, but also eagerly innovated the WSD and advanced IT technology (i.e. Geo-Location, CR, DSA, OFDMA and IEEE 802.2210 …etc. ) to promote the awareness of white space. 5. How to use the key to unlock the door ? First of all, Geo-Location technology is the threshold to use the white space. Geo-Location is the identification of the real-world geographic location of Internet-connected computers, mobile devices, website visitors or others. In avoidance of band-interference and public safety communication, users mustn’t interfere with the prior ones, or s/he couldn’t access the band via WSD. Thus, Geo-Location can assist WSD users, just like a beacon, to avoid the occupied band and keep them away from nearby transmissions. Second, a spectrum database that contains Geo-Location information about devices using the free channels in the radio spectrum and some strong database managers are needed. Frankly speaking, the original idea was that WSD would detect existing users and switch frequencies to avoid them, but that's technically dubious and hasn't been demonstrated to FCC's satisfaction. So the proposed solution requires devices to locate themselves then connect to a database which will allocate a frequency along with a timeout, after which the device will have to repeat its request. For example, the followings are the necessary information in the TV database. • Transmitter coordinates (latitude and longitude), • Effective radiated power (ERP), • Height above average terrain of the transmitter (HAAT), • Horizontal transmit antenna pattern (if the antenna is directional), • channel number, • Station call sign. In a word, in order to protect existing broadcasters, FCC mandated the creation of a Geo-Location database that details what spectrum is in use and where. Furthermore, the idea is that unlicensed broadband devices will tap this database before sending or receiving data, using the info in tandem with spectrum sensing technologies to avoid interference. Accordingly, White Spaces Database (WSDB) was introduced, a DB which would permit public access to register and discover devices and the frequencies used based on their location11. This database would be used in conjunction with local device discovery to avoid contention between devices. FCC has worried about that no one has ever run a radio system like this, so no one can really claim experience in the area (though most of the proposals try). The FCC commissioner Robert McDowell has raised an eyebrow at Google's request to serve as an administrator of a national database detailing the use of white-space spectrum. Google proposes the operation of a WSDB for at least five years, promising to "transfer to a successor entity the Database, the IP addresses and URLs used to access the Database, and the list of registered Fixed WSD" in case they cannot live up to it. Google does not plan to "implement per-query fees"12 , but they are considering a per-device fee. No decision has been made yet, but the FCC allows a WSDB administrator to charge such fees.13 Finally but innovating initially, it’s the Cognitive Radio system (CR). There are various definitions of CR. Herewith the paragraph 10 of the FCC 03-322 NPRM, the definition of Cognitive Radio could be specified as a radio that can change its transmitter parameters based on interaction with the environment in which it operates. The following figure shows how the Cognitive Radio System does work. Figure 1.Cognitive Radio System Let’s explain it more clearly and vividly. Imagine a radio which autonomously detects and exploits empty spectrum to increase your file transfer rate. Suppose this same radio could remember the locations where your calls tend to drop and arrange for your call to be serviced by a different carrier for those locations. These are some of the ideas motivating the development of cognitive radio. In effect, a cognitive radio is a software radio whose control processes leverage situational knowledge and intelligent processing to work towards achieving some goal related to the needs of the user, application, and network. Although cognitive radio was initially thought of as a software-defined radio extension (Full Cognitive Radio), most of the research work is currently focusing on Spectrum Sensing Cognitive Radio. In other words, the focus on CR has been switched into "DSA" (Dynamic Spectrum Access) nowadays.14 Therefore, some fellows replace Cognitive Radio with "Cognitive Systems" for accurate description.15 The following is the figure to show the function of DSA to detect "spectrum hole" that could be used as TV white space.16 Figure 2.The sensing of the spectrum hole "Digital dividend", one kind of interleaved/white space, has been viewed as precious band in Unite Kingdom, too. In U.K., its regulatory body, Ofcom, has also published a discussion document to explore the possibility of using these "dividend" to wirelessly link up different devices and offer enhanced broadband access in rural areas. Ofcom has predicted that could enable the use of the spectrum in this way would take at least three years to develop. Possible applications include mobile broadband, the transmission of home media such as photos from cameras to a computer wirelessly and the ability to control appliances in the home. Moreover, Ofcom firmly contended that if there was evidence that interference could be avoided, it would allow the use of interleaved spectrum without the need for individual licenses, the same as the FCC’s policy. However, local TV coalition United for Local Television (ULTV)17 has strongly criticized the Ofcom’s current proposal to appoint a band manager to "control" interleaved spectrum (and make it available to applications such as wireless microphones for special events) and to ensure that the spectrum is made available to local TV groups on fair, reasonable and non-discriminatory terms. According to current proposals, Ofcom’s "band manager" would be required to allocate spectrum to special event organizers on fair and non-discriminatory terms but not to local TV groups. ULTV has protested this unfair condition. In contrast, FCC has clearly issued the "2nd report" to mandate the bidder of upper 700 MHz D block should apply to fair and non-discriminatory terms. 6. Technological challenges for accessing white space In November 2008 the FCC issued an R&O on the unlicensed use of TV white space.18 The FCC regulated some vital requirements to rule the usage of TVWS in this document. These requirements impose technical challenges for the design of devices operating in TV white space spectrum, which brings new tough task for the innovation and production of WSD.19 These new rules provide an opportunity but they also introduce a number of technical challenges. The challenges require development of cognitive radio technologies like spectrum sensing as well as new wireless PHY and MAC layer designs. For example, the development of spectrum sensing techniques involves RF (Radio Frequency) design, robust signal processing, pattern recognition and networking protocols… etc. The choice of RF architecture is no longer merely a hardware issue, but will directly affect the upper layer performance. Furthermore, these challenges include spectrum sensing of both TV signals and wireless microphone ones, frequency agile operation, geo-location, stringent spectral mask requirements, and of course the ability to provide reliable service in unlicensed and dynamically changing spectrum.20 In addition, the FCC has strict out-of-band emission (OOBE) requirements to prevent interference with licensed transmissions in other channels. A detailed description of these out-of-band emission requirements and their impact on the transmission spectral mask for WSD is provided in Section VII of the R&O. Unfortunately, there are still other hurdles to be overcome. While the frequencies used by television stations do have a long reach and easily penetrate walls, it is important to remember that these signals are one-way communications, often broadcast from giant antennas at megawatts of power. For gadgets and computers, a much lower transmission power would be used, greatly decreasing the range of the White Space devices. So are we talking the Wi-Fi-like ranges here or 3G-like ranges? The National Association of Broadcasters has also questioned the ability of WSD to operate without interfering with television broadcasts. In addition, wireless microphones could be affected, although Google has proposed a "beacon" that could be utilized alongside existing wireless microphone equipment that would alert WSD not to operate on the same channel. Last but not least, how to ensure QoS of WSD users is implicit trouble. The Cognitive Radio system should provide that fast, robust, coordinated sensing and quite periods and to protect incumbents as well as provide QoS. It will be a dilemma faced by the regulatory bodies and ICT industry. Another real-world problem is that there are no WSD for consumers and even if someone comes out with a new product, it will likely be very expensive since it isn’t widely produced,21 although Spectrum Bridge has proven one example mentioned above. Nevertheless, some people still criticized what Spectrum Bridge has done probably could have used 5 GHz for the point-to-point backhaul connections. "The Smart City" is using Wi-Fi for the last mile rather than white spaces because there are no white space devices on the consumer end. Rick Rotondo, chief marketing officer for Spectrum Bridge argued Spectrum Bridge tried using Wi-Fi at 2.4GHz, 5GHz would never have made it; 2.4 didn’t make it. However, Spectrum Bridge did use Wi-Fi for the last hundred feet, not the last mile, but for the last hundred feet because there are Wi-Fi receivers built into laptops and smartphones and that’s who we wanted to be able to connect to this network. It sounds like a tautology. 7. What’s beyond the white space ? What kind of ICT could people apply to after getting the white/interleaved space? "Super Wi-Fi" is the first application connected with white space. As Larry Page, co-founder of Google, has described that white spaces are like "Wi-Fi on steroids" linked up wireless internet with much faster speeds, stronger signals and more affordable costs. Besides, there are other advanced ICT could function via white space, such as LTE, IPTV, MediaFLO, DVB-H, ISDB-T, MVNO, ITS (DSRC) and so on. 8. Vision: Legal challenges for accessing white space in Taiwan Although not mentioned above, FCC indeed allows the secondary-market of spectrum boosting in U.S. That’s an important reason, or motivation, to develop white space applications and regulations. In other words, the spectrum, not the license, could be auctioned, leased, retailed, weaved and so on. However, the regulatory mode of communication in Taiwan is "Vertical Regulatory Framework", which would be an obstacle to evolve the spectrum-usage in contrast to U.S and EU. Under the interpretation of Legal Positivism, Taiwan Budget Act Article 94 states, "Unless otherwise provided for by law, grant of quota, frequency, or other limited or fixed amount special licenses shall be conducted by open auction or public invitation to tender and the proceeds of which shall be turned in to the national treasury." Hereby, the administration could really fulfill the legal assignment via public invitation to tender or auction for the "license", not the band. Nevertheless, the administration does not apply auction process to issue the licenses, but approaches the frequency licenses with "Radio and Television Act" and "Administrative Regulations on Radio Waves" which is promulgated under the Telecommunications Act in accordance with the first paragraph of 48, Section 1 of said Act instead. Step closely, Radio and Television Act Article 4 firmly states, "The frequencies used by radio/television businesses are owned by the state and their allocation shall be planned by the MOTC in conjunction with the regulatory agency. The frequencies mentioned in the preceding paragraph may not be leased, loaned, or transferred. (emphasis added)". This article has resulted in inflexible use of spectrum, and dragged the collective use of spectrum, too. Undoubtedly, only we have to do is to amend the article for accessing white space in accordance with Legal Positivism. Second, according to Administrative Regulations on Radio Waves, the National Communications Commission shall be responsible for the overall coordination and regulation of radio waves including radio frequencies, power, emission method and radio station identification call sign etc., which shall not be used or altered without approval. Thus, under the justice of legal system, NCC should revise the spectrum policy/regulations in harmony with Administrative Regulations on Radio Waves. For example, the Article 6 and 10 separately regulates, "The radio equipment shall adopt the latest technical advances to limit the number of frequencies and the frequency bandwidth used to the minimum essential for the necessary services. The frequency assigned to a station of a given service shall be separated from the limits of the band allocated to this service in such a way that, taking account of the frequency band assigned to a station, no harmful interference is caused to services to which frequency bands immediately adjoining are allocated." Therefore, WSD indeed, even necessarily, should be applied to band management and revolution of ICT industry. Moreover, Central Regulation Standard Act Article 5 (embodied the principle of constitutional requirement of a specific enactment) also requires, "The following objects shall be stipulated by a statute: 1. It is required to stipulate by a statute as the Constitution or a statue expressly stipulated. 2. Stipulation concerns the rights or obligations of the people. 3. Stipulation concerns the organization of a government agency at national level. 4. Other objects with substantial importance shall be stipulated by a statute." The Legislative Yuan must consider to promote the status of Administrative Regulations on Radio Waves to Statue, which conforms to Constitutional requirement. To sum up, Taiwan administration should take white space seriously, or ICT in Taiwan will be doomed as if getting lost in "space". 9. ad hoc Conclusion :Do not lock the door of white space "Open access" is the most important canon in the usage of white space. In this meaning, there are two dimensions for open access. One is unlicensed band-usage, the other is unlicensed WSD which is also unlicensed and interlocks into different operators’ networks. The later is a big task in America. FCC’s decision was contested by the TV broadcasters who fear using the freed channels would interfered with TV signals and live singers who are using the same wave spaces.22 Larry Page also argued that unlicensed white spaces offer a way for the U.S. to catch up with the rest of the world in broadband access. Today, 10% of Americans still don't have access to DSL or cable broadband, according to consultancy Parks Associates. Fortunately, the first steps towards white space communications have already been taken and FCC has approved unlicensed use of the spectrum, but FCC requires a database of all known licensed users to be deployed in order to prevent from interfering with the existing broadcasts and devices already using the space, such as licensed TV broadcasts and some wireless microphones The second dimension is unlicensed WSD to compatible different network architecture. At first, the unlicensed devices must fit the criterion which could guarantee that they will not interfere with assigned broadcasts can use the empty white spaces in frequency spectrum. In order not to harm nearby transmission, the best way is to set a standard for WSD in one network built by certain operator. For example, if WSD users want to connect to Verizon Wireless’ network, s/he has to buy/use Verizon Wireless’ WSD. However, out of Verizon Wireless’ network, WSD users have to purchase/use another WSD. It will be inconvenient and raise the cost, but quench people’s desire to use WSD. As a result, FCC issued the R&O to prevent devices-locked, so-called "discriminatory QoS", from deploying the white space proposal. Accordingly, the mandatory rule indeed slows down the innovation of WSD. Obviously, unlicensed use of the vacant TV channels is an economic and social revival waiting to happen in rural areas. In addition, white/interleaved space will manage to fit the core principle of modern spectrum-development, "collective and effective use". There are so many merits to share the "dividend", but at this time, we are still far away the real "white space". The situation in Taiwan is much worse unfortunately. 1.See FCC official document,http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/DOC-293891A1.pdf (last visited 03/05/2010) 2.OFDMA is a multi-user version of the popular Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) digital modulation scheme. Multiple access is achieved in OFDMA by assigning subsets of subcarriers to individual users. This allows simultaneous low data rate transmission from several users. 3.See Final Acts of the Regional Radio-communication Conference for planning of the digital terrestrial broadcasting service in parts of Regions 1 and 3, in the frequency bands 174-230 MHz and 470-862 MHz (RRC-06). 4.In the United States, the abandoned television frequencies are primarily in the upper UHF "700-megahertz" band, covering TV channels 52 to 69 (698 to 806 MHz). 5.See http://spectrumbridge.com/web/images/pdfs/smart_city-spectrumbridge.pdf visited on 2010/2/27. 6.http://spectrumbridge.com/web/ 7.See http://showmywhitespace.com/portals/1/Spectrum%20Bridge%20Launches%20White%20Spaces%20Network%20In%20Wilmington-New%20Hanover%20County.pdf visited on 2010/2/27. 8.The group includes Microsoft, Google, Dell, HP, Intel, Philips, Earthlink, and Samsung Electro-Mechanics. 10.The standardization is another crucial issue but will not be discussed in detail hereunder. 11.In February 2009, Google joined Comsearch, Dell, HP, Microsoft, Motorola, and Neustar to form the White Spaces Database Working Group (WSDG), an effort to build such a database.. 12.Actually, the database host will know where users are and the kit they're using, both of which are commercially valuable pieces of information. Google thinks that data will pay for the database, and Google is very good at extracting value from information; but even if it can't turn white space into gold, it will have five years to drive the competition out of business. 13.See generally Google’s proposal to FCC, http://www.scribd.com/doc/24784912/01-04-10-Google-White-Spaces-Database-Proposal visited on 2010/2/28. 14.Specifying clearly, the main mechanism of CR is including, but not limited to DSA. 15.Evolution of Cognitive Radio toward Cognitive Networks is under process, in which Cognitive Wireless Mesh Network (i.e. Cog-Mesh) is considered as one of the enabling candidates aiming at realizing this paradigm change. 16.Test conducted in the rural sector west of Ottawa, Canada. See C. R. Stevenson, G. Chouinard, W. Caldwell,Tutorial on the P802.22.2 PAR for :"Recommended Practice for the Installation and Deployment of IEEE 802.22 Systems," IEEE802, San Diego, CA, 7/17/06 http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/802/802_tutorials/july06/Rec-Practice_802.22_Tutorial.ppt. 17.United for Local Television ("ULTV") is a coalition of groups and campaigners who together lobby the government to recognize local TV as a public service. ULTV argues that all citizens should have access to local TV, no matter where they live, without having to subscribe to pay-TV or broadband. ULTV proposes that the government reserve capacity for local TV services on the most popular television platform in the UK today – digital terrestrial television (commonly known as "Freeview"). ULTV anticipates that local TV channels will provide local news and sport, together with a range of other local and networked programming. ULTV envisages local TV services would also provide local advertising, for the first time offering a cost-effective option for many local businesses seeking to advertise on terrestrial TV in their target market. 18.See Second Report and Order and Memorandum Opinion and Order In the Matter of Unlicensed Operation in the TV Broadcast Bands, Additional Spectrum for Unlicensed Devices Below 900 MHz and in the 3 GHz Band, Federal Communication Commission, Document 08-260, Nov. 14, 2008. 19.In detail, the FCC distinguished fixed WSD from portable one. There are different restrictions and requirements between them. 20.See http://ita.ucsd.edu/workshop/09/files/paper/paper_1500.pdf visited on 2010/2/20. 21.See http://www.digitalmediabuzz.com/2010/03/broadband-debate-white-space/ visited on 2010/3/17. 22.See http://lasarletter.net/docs/nabpet4review.pdf visited on 2010/2/25.The Research on Cybersecurity Risks in 5G network: Perspectives on Global strategy
The Research on Cybersecurity Risks in 5G network: Perspectives on Global strategy I. The characteristics of 5G and cybersecurity threats Compared to 4G, 5G adopts several new designs on the network architecture, such as software-defined networking (SDN), a baseband unit (BBU), logical disjunction, network function virtualization (NFV), and multi-access edge computing (MEC), to provide users with high-speed, low-latency and other quality services, as well as flexibility and expansibility to accommodate more emerging applications. According to the three key usage scenarios (see Figure 1) defined by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), enhanced mobile broadband access (eMBB) provides high-volume mobile broadband services such as AR/VR or ultra-high-definition video. Massive machine type communication (mMTC) provides large-scale IoT services. Ultra-reliability and low latency communication (uRLLC) can be used for services that require low-latency and high-reliability connections, including unmanned driving and industrial automation. However, with 5G’s open, flexible and extensible design, as well as its coexistence with other 4G and 3G systems in the early stage of commercial operation, the cybersecurity threats facing 5G networks are more severe and diverse than the past mobile phone generations. At present, the known 5G cybersecurity threats mainly come from network functional components and connection interfaces among components, including the terminal device, access network, air interface, cloud virtualization, multi-access edge computing rental, core network, back-end/backbone network, roaming and external services, and so on. Source: ITU Figure 1Three key 5G scenarios by the ITU II. Cybersecurity strategy development in major countries 5G is not only one of the critical infrastructures, but also an important foundation for pursuing a digital nation, digital economy, the industrial 4.0, and for promoting industrial transformation for upgrading. However, different scenarios require different cybersecurity protection levels, which poses great challenges to both mobile network operators and service providers. Therefore, the construction of favorable environment for 5G development, the promotion of relevant applications and the development of innovative services and so on, have become the priority of governance in the countries around the world. 1. European Union (EU) Then European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker noted in 2017 that “Cyber-attacks can be more dangerous to the stability of democracies and economies than guns and tanks…Cyber-attacks know no borders and no one is immune,” indicating the EU's high priority in the cybersecurity field. The "Digital Single Market," an important EU policy, lays the foundation for digital economy based on "cybersecurity, trust and privacy." In response to the loss of billions of euros a year in cyber attacks, the EU has taken a series of measures to safeguard and advance the development of the Digital Single Market. For the purposes of this strategy, the European Commission in 2018 came up with the policy of Resilience, Deterrence and Defence: Building strong cybersecurity for the EU,with the aim of improving the level of cyber security, cyber resilience and trust in the EU, and in June 2019 passed the Cybersecurity Act  with two highlights described as follows: (1) Strengthen the authority of the European Union Agency for Network and Information Security (ENISA)(see Figure 2), increase the allocation of human and financial resources to ENISA, as well as the preparation for the work items related to the cybersecurity industry, and reinforce cyber security support for EU member states. (2) Establish the EU cybersecurity certification framework.  In the European Union, where different cybersecurity certification schemes already exist, the absence of a common certification regime would increase the risk of fragmentation of the single market. For this reason, a set of technical requirements, standards and procedures are provided under this framework to assess whether information/communication products, services and processes are in compliance with security requirements. The certification program includes product and service categories, information/communication security requirements (e.g. reference standards or technical specifications), types of assessment (e.g. self-assessment or third-party assessment), levels of security, and so on. All member states agree that certification not only facilitate cross-border business transactions, but also enable consumers to better understand the security of products and services. Source: Compiled from the ENISA websit Figure 2 ENISA organization and authority strengthening 2. the United States (U.S.) In consideration of cyber security affairs in the country, the US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) in May 2018 unveiled the "Cybersecurity Strategy," which focused on the objectives and priorities of the U.S. government in future cybersecurity protection, identifying and managing national cybersecurity risks with the overall risk management approach, and addressing security threats to the country, critical infrastructures and private enterprises, as well as preventing cybercrimes. Then the White House in September 2018 released the National Cyber Strategy of the United States of America,  based on the Presidential Executive Order on Strengthening the Cybersecurity of Federal Networks and Critical Infrastructure  issued in May 2017, stating the strategy and position of the United States against the threat of cyber- attacks. The strategic goal aimed to, by safeguarding cybersecurity, protect the American people, the homeland, and the American way of life, to build a secure digital economic environment, to promote American prosperity, and strengthen cooperation with partners to deter malicious cyber attackers, so as to maintain peace and security, and continue to expand U.S. influence. The department in July 2019 published the Digital Modernization Strategy  to announce its national defense strategy in the digital environment, including the use of cybersecurity, AI, cloud computing, blockchain and other technologies in information security protection to create a more secure, coordinated and efficient platform and improve the security of intelligence transmission and processing. 3. Canada Public Safety Canada in June 2018 released the National Cyber Security Strategy,  with the vision of a sustainable, robust cybersecurity environment, innovation and prosperity. Through international cooperation and a domestic public-private partnership, the department has been working on three goals: 1. cyber security and resilience (to reduce cybercrime and ensure Internet privacy; 2. Internet innovation (to create a friendly environment for the development of cybersecurity startups); 3. government leadership and cooperation (to transfer government-owned cybersecurity knowledge to the private sector and set up a cybersecurity governance framework). The Canadian government also attaches great importance to critical infrastructure. In May 2018, the National Cross Sector Forum 2018-2020 Action Plan for Critical Infrastructure  was unveiled to facilitate information sharing between public and private partners through sharing and protecting intelligence, and implementing a full risk management approach. Moreover, Public Safety Canada in April 2019 issued a report called Enhancing Canada’s Critical Infrastructure Resilience to Insider Risk, which provided guidelines and suggestions for action on internal risks in critical infrastructure organizations. 4. Singapore The government of Singapore in 2018 promulgated the Cybersecurity Act,  which aimed to fulfill the vision of a Smart Nation by enacting and putting into effect cybersecurity regulations to achieve the goal of a resilient infrastructure and a more secure cyberspace, and to strengthen the protection of critical information infrastructure against cyber-attacks. The Cyber Security Agency of Singapore (CSA) was given the authority to prevent and respond to cybersecurity threats, and to set up a system for sharing security information, as well as a light-touch licensing system for cybersecurity service providers. The Government of Singapore has appointed a Commissioner of Cybersecurity responsible for promoting domestic cybersecurity policy. To safeguard Singaporeans from cybersecurity threats,  the government particularly laid down cybersecurity threat or incident response provisions in Chapter 4 of the Cybersecurity Act to empower the Commissioner of Cybersecurity to investigate cybersecurity threats and incidents, such as requiring the parties to the incidents to present statements in person or in writing, producing documents or provide information and so on. 5. Australia The Australian government in 2016 proposed a four-year "Australia's Cyber Security Strategy," which was expected to invest more than 230 million Australian dollars to strengthen Australia's cyber security capability and complete the following five aspects: national cyber partnership, strong cyber defenses, global responsibility and influence, growth and innovation, and a cyber smart nation. As for the global responsibility and influence, the Australian government in 2017 announced the "Australia's International Cyber Engagement Strategy." which aims to strengthen digital trade, to improve cybersecurity and to response to cybercrime through international cooperation; encourage innovative cybersecurity solutions; provide security advice and best practices, such as Essential Eight strategies to mitigate cyber-attacks; establish the Pacific Cyber Security Operational Network (PaCSON)  with neighboring countries to develop regional cybersecurity capabilities; and advance the development of Australia's cybersecurity industry, nurture startups and attract foreign investment. III. Cybersecurity strategy to promote 5G in Taiwan Since President Tsai Ing-wen took office in 2016, she declared that cybersecurity is directly linked to national security. In 2017, the Department of Cyber Security (DCS) under the Executive Yuan issued "National Cybersecurity Development Plan (2017-2020)," and in 2018 the "Cybersecurity Industry Development Action Plan (2018-2025)," in order to enhance the independence of Taiwan's cybersecurity industry, consolidate the nation’s cybersecurity defense line, improve its innovative thinking of cyber security, and further promote it to the international market. To develop a favorable environment to promote 5G, the Executive Yuan on May 10, 2019 approved the “Taiwan 5G Action Plan (2019-2022),”  with a total investment about NT$20.466 billion over a four-year period. The plan aims to build a 5G application and industrial innovation environment, and reshape Taiwan's mobile communication industry ecosystem, with its content planned around five themes, including "promoting 5G vertical application field demonstration", "building 5G innovation and application development environment," "completing 5G technology core and cybersecurity protection capabilities," "planning to release 5G frequency spectrums in line with overall interests" and "adjusting laws and regulations to create favorable environment for 5G development," and to promote industrial upgrading and transformation, as well as create the next wave of economic prosperity in Taiwan. Secure, robust and reliable 5G systems are sufficient and requisite conditions for building an innovation ecosystem in digital countries. The third theme of the "Taiwan 5G Action Plan" is to "complete 5G technology core and cybersecurity protection capabilities," which is intended to advance the integration of applied science and technology by establishing advantageous core technologies, set up a 5G technology and test platform, and increase the market competitiveness of 5G industry, while drafting the overall national policies on 5G cybersecurity, building the cybersecurity protection mechanism of 5G homemade products, strengthening 5G critical infrastructure and operational cybersecurity protection capabilities, and promoting domestic suppliers to enter the international 5G reliable supply chain. In terms of strengthening 5G critical infrastructure and operational cybersecurity protection capacities, the NCC has planned a four-year (2019-2022) "5G Network Cybersecurity Protection and Related Regulations Preparation Plan." In coordination with a 5G license issue in 2020, the agency in 2019 added/amended the 5G cybersecurity provisions of the Regulations for Administration of Mobile Broadband Businesses, making it mandatory for the winning bidder of the 5G frequency spectrum to incorporate the cybersecurity protection concept into the system design for system construction. Upon commercial operation of 5G, the NCC will audit from time to time the implementation of the cybersecurity maintenance plan by telecom operators, so as to ensure and reinforce the cybersecurity protection system of Taiwan's 5G telecom network, and create an opportunity for the development of 5G homemade products with cybersecurity protection capability. In addition, the NCC will also face up to the fact that 5G technology standards continue to evolve, and the operators have different construction schedules and heterogeneous mobile networks coexist. Therefore, relevant regulations will continue to be completed from 2020 to 2022, and examples will be verified through cybersecurity function testing laboratories to ensure that cybersecurity protection functions of 5G networks keep pace with the times. IV. Conclusion and Suggestion As for emerging technologies, countries around the world are actively evaluating and constructing 5G systems and services. Taiwan boasts excellent industrial advantages in terms of semiconductors, ICT software and hardware, and high-quality talents, and thus makes a foundation for developing 5G. Furthermore, going with the importance of cybersecurity, it is necessary to pay more attention to planning and developing 5G cybersecurity technology. It is clear that the development of cybersecurity is both a challenge and an opportunity for Taiwan. In order to implement the national policy objectives of "cybersecurity is national security" as well as "innovative economic development programs for a digital nation," and to response to the scientific and technological progress, and the demand for cybersecurity, key development direction is proposed to expedite the establishment of 5G cybersecurity protection. Reference: Resilience, Deterrence and Defence: Building strong cybersecurity in Europe, European Commission, https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/news/resilience-deterrence-and-defence-building-strong-cybersecurity-europe The draft Regulation of The European Parliament And of The Council on ENISA, the "EU Cybersecurity Agency", and repealing Regulation(EU)526/2013, and on Information and Communication Technology cybersecurity certification(''Cybersecurity Act'') was published in September 2017 to expand the rights and obligations of ENISA, which would make ENISA the EU's cybersecurity and information competent authority and the authority for critical infrastructure (information) facilities after the passage of the Act. Regulation (EU) 2019/881 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 April 2019 on ENISA (the European Union Agency for Cybersecurity) and on information and communications technology cybersecurity certification and repealing Regulation (EU) No 526/2013 (Cybersecurity Act) (Text with EEA relevance), https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=uriserv:OJ.L_.2019.151.01.0015.01.ENG&toc=OJ:L:2019:151:TOC The EU cybersecurity certification framework, European Commission, https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/eu-cybersecurity-certification-framework Cybersecurity Strategy(2018), DHS, https://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/DHS-Cybersecurity-Strategy_1.pdf National Cyber Strategy of the United States of America(2018), The White House, https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/National-Cyber-Strategy.pdf THE WHITE HOUSE, Presidential Executive Order on Strengthening the Cybersecurity of Federal Networks and Critical Infrastructure, The White House, https://www.whitehouse.gov/presidential-actions/presidential-executive-order-strengthening-cybersecurity-federal-networks-critical-infrastructure/ DoD Digital Modernization Strategy, DoD, https://media.defense.gov/2019/Jul/12/2002156622/-1/-1/1/DOD-DIGITAL-MODERNIZATION-STRATEGY-2019.PDF National Cybersecurity Strategy, Public Safety Canada, https://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/rsrcs/pblctns/ntnl-cbr-scrt-strtg/index-en.aspx National Cross Sector Forum 2018-2020 Action Plan for Critical Infrastructure, Public Safety Canada, Public Safety Canada, https://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/rsrcs/pblctns/pln-crtcl-nfrstrctr-2018-20/index-en.aspx#a02 The action plan is a three-year program under Canada's2010 National Strategy for Critical Infrastructure (National Strategy) starting in 2010 for all phases. Enhancing Canada’s Critical Infrastructure Resilience to Insider Risk, Public Safety Canada, Public Safety Canada, https://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/rsrcs/pblctns/nhncng-crtcl-nfrstrctr/index-en.aspx Cybersecurity Act 2018, Singapore Statutes Online, https://sso.agc.gov.sg/Acts-Supp/9-2018/ Cybersecurity Act, CSA, https://www.csa.gov.sg/legislation/cybersecurity-act Id. Cybersecurity Act Explanatory Statement, https://www.csa.gov.sg/~/media/csa/cybersecurity_bill/cybersecurity%20act%20-%20explanatory%20statement.pdf Australia’s Cybersecurity Strategy, https://cybersecuritystrategy.homeaffairs.gov.au/ What is the Government doing in cybersecurity, Ministers for the Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, https://www.industry.gov.au/data-and-publications/australias-tech-future/cyber-security/what-is-the-government-doing-in-cyber-security Australia’s International Cyber Engagement Strategy, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade,https://www.dfat.gov.au/sites/default/files/DFAT%20AICES_AccPDF.pdf Essential Eight Explained, ACSC, https://www.cyber.gov.au/publications/essential-eight-explained Pacific Cybersecurity Operational Network(PaCSON), https://dfat.gov.au/international-relations/themes/cyber-affairs/cyber-cooperation-program/Pages/pacific-cyber-security-operational-network-pacson.aspx Or Strengthening cybersecurity across the Pacific, ACSC, https://www.cyber.gov.au/news/pacific-islands PaCSON is comprised of 15 members, including Australia, Fiji, Marshall Islands, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, and Solomon Islands. Taiwan 5G Action Plan, Executive Yuan,https://www.ey.gov.tw/Page/5A8A0CB5B41DA11E/087b4ed8-8c79-49f2-90c3-6fb22d740488The legal challenges of ubiquitous healthcare
Whereas the burden of private nursing for the elderly is getting heavier, industrialized countries with an aging society are endeavoring to seek possibilities of reducing the unit healthcare cost, such as technology assistance, and even the introduction of the brand new care type or model, which is an emerging application field of increasing importance. The development of such kind of healthcare industry not only is suitable for aging societies but also coincides with the growing health management trend of modern people. Also, while the focus on acute diseases in the past has changed to chronic diseases which are common to most citizens, the measuring and monitoring of physiological indicators, such as blood pressure, pulse, blood sugar and uric acid have critical effects on condition control. However, it will mean huge financial and physical burdens to the elderly or suffering from chronic diseases if they need to travel to hospitals to measure these physiological indicators. At this moment, an economical, reliable and timely physiological information collection and transfer system will be technology with good potential. For this reason, the purpose of this study is to investigate the potential business opportunities by applying the emerging information technology (IT) to the healthcare industry and the derivative legal and regulatory issues, with a focus on the seamless healthcare industry. It is hoped that by assessing the opportunity and risk in terms of legal and strategic analysis, we can single out the potential imbalance of fitting seamless healthcare, an IT-enabled service (ITeS), in the conventional control framework, and thereby establish a legal environment more appropriate for the development of the seamless healthcare industry. Referring to the existing electronic healthcare classification, the industry is divided into the following four blocks: electronic content provider, electronic product provider, electronic linking service provider and electronic passport service provider. Also, by depicting the outlook of the industry, the mode of application and the potential and common or special legal problems of different products are clarified. Given that health information collected, stored and transferred by electronic means involves unprecedented risk in information privacy and security, and that the appropriate control of such risk will affect the consumer’s faith in and willingness to subscribe seamless healthcare services, this study analyzed the privacy framework of the USA, the EU and Taiwan. Results indicate that future privacy legislation in Taiwan should include the protection for non-computer-processed personal information, expand the scope and occupation of applications, reinforce control incentives, and optimize the privacy protection mechanism. Further, only when service providers have the correct and appropriate concept of privacy protection can the watch-and-wait attitude of consumers be eliminated. These can help to promote subsequent development of the industry in the future. Due to the booming international trade as a result of globalization, and the gradual opening of the domestic telecommunication and healthcare markets following Taiwan’s entry into the WTO, transnational distance healthcare will gradually become a reality. However, the determination of the qualifications of practitioners is the prerequisite of transnational healthcare services. Taiwan may also consider lowering the requirements for physicians to practice in other countries and thereby to enhance the export competitiveness of Taiwan’s healthcare industry by means of distance healthcare via endorsement or reciprocity. Lastly, whereas the risks distance healthcare involves are higher than conventional healthcare services, the sharing of burdens and disputes over applicable laws in case of damages are the gray areas for executive control or judicial practice intervention. For this reason, service providers are unwilling to enter the market because the risks are too unpredictable. Therefore, this study recommends that the insurance system for distance healthcare should be the focus of future studies in order to promote the development of the industry.