The Coverage and Policies of Critical Infrastructure Protection in U.S.

Regarding the issue of critical infrastructure protection, the emphasis in the past was put on strategic facilities related to the national economy and social security merely based on the concept of national defense and security1. However, since 911 tragedy in New York, terrorist attacks in Madrid in 2004 and several other martial impacts in London in 2005, critical infrastructure protection has become an important issue in the security policy for every nation. With the broad definition, not only confined to national strategies against immediate dangers or to execution of criminal prevention procedure, the concept of "critical infrastructure" should also include facilities that are able to invalidate or incapacitate the progress of information & communication technology. In other words, it is elevated to strengthen measures of security prevention instead. Accordingly, countries around the world have gradually cultivated a notion that critical infrastructure protection is different from prevention against natural calamities and from disaster relief, and includes critical information infrastructure (CII) maintained so that should be implemented by means of information & communication technology into the norm.

In what follows, the International CIIP Handbook 2008/2009 is used as a research basis. The Subjects, including the coverage of CIIP, relevant policies promoted in America, are explored in order to provide our nation with some references to strengthen the security development of digital age.

1. Coverage of Important Critical Information Infrastructures

Critical infrastructure is mainly defined in "Uniting and Strengthening our country by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001, as known as Patriot Act of the U.S., in section 1016(e)2 . The term ‘critical infrastructure’ refers to "systems and assets, whether physical or virtual, so vital to our country that the incapacity or destruction of such systems and assets would have a debilitating impact on security, national economic security, national public health or safety, or any combination of those matters." In December 2003, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) promulgated Homeland Security Presidential Directive 7 (HSPD-7)3 to identify 17 Critical Infrastructures and key resources (CI/KR) ,and bleuprinted the responsibility as well as the role for each of CI/KR in the protection task. In this directive, DHS also emphasized that the coverage of CI/KR would depend on the real situations to add or delete sectors to ensure the comprehensiveness of critical infrastructure. In March 2008, DHS added Critical Manufacturing which becomes the 18th critical infrastructure correspondent with 17 other critical infrastructures. The critical infrastructures identified by DHS are: information technology, communications, chemical, commercial facilities, dams, nuclear reactors, materials and waste, government facilities, transportation systems, emergency services, postal and shipping, agriculture and food, healthcare and public health, water, energy (including natural gas, petroleum, and electricity), banking and finance, national monuments and icons, defense industrial Base, and critical manufacturing.

2. Relevant Policies Previously Promoted

With Critical Infrastructure Working Group (CIWG) as a basis, the President's Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection (PCCIP) directly subordinate to the President was established in 1996. It consists of relevant governmental organizations and representatives from private sectors. It is responsible for promoting and drawing up national policies indicating an important critical infrastructure, including natural disasters, negligence and lapses caused by humans, hacker invasion, industrial espionage, criminal organizations, terror campaign, and information & communication war and so on. Although PCCIP no longer exists and its functions were also redefined by HDSP-7, the success of improving cooperation and communication between public and private sectors was viewed as a significant step in the subsequent issues on information security of critical infrastructure of public and private sectors in America. In May 1998, Bill Clinton, the former President of the U.S., amended PCCIP and announced Presidential Decision Directive 62, 63 (PDD-62, PDD-63). Based on these directives, relevant teams were established within the federal government to develop and push the critical infrastructure plans to protect the operations of the government, assist communications between the government and the private sectors, and further develop the plans to secure national critical infrastructure.

In addition, concrete policies and plans regarding information security of critical infrastructure would contain the Defence of America's Cyberspace -- National Plan for Information Systems Protection given by President Clinton in January, 2000 based on the issue of critical infrastructure security on the Internet which strengthens the sharing mechanism of internet information security messages between the government and private organizations. After 911, President Bush issued Executive Order 13228 (EO 13228) and Executive Order 13231 to set up organizations to deal with matters regarding critical infrastructure protection. According to EO 13228, the Office of Homeland Security and the Homeland Security Council were established. The duty of the former is mainly assist the U.S. President to integrate all kinds of enforcements related to the protection of the nation and critical infrastructure so as to avoid terrorist attacks, while the latter provides the President with advice on protection of homeland security and assists to solve relevant problems. According to EO 13228, the President's Critical Infrastructure Protection Board directly subordinate to the President was established to be responsible for offering advice on polices regarding information security protection of critical infrastructure and on cooperation plans. In addition, National Infrastructure Advisory Council (NIAC), which consists of owners and managers of national critical infrastructure, was also set up to help promote the cooperation between public and private sectors. Ever since the aforementioned executive order, critical infrastructure protection has been more concrete and specific in definition; for instance, to define critical infrastructure and its coverage through HSPD-7, the National Strategy for Homeland Security issued in 2002, the polices regarding the National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace and the National Strategy for Physical Protection of Critical Infrastructure and Key Assets addressed by the White House in 2003; all of this are based on the National Strategy for Homeland Security. Moreover, the density of critical infrastructure protection which contains virtual internet information security was enhanced for the protection of physical equipment and the protection from destruction caused by humans.

Finally, judging from the National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP), Sector-Specific Plans (SPP) supplementing NIPP and offering a detailed list of risk management framework, along with National Strategy for Information-Sharing, the public-private partnership (PPP) and the establishment of information sharing mechanism are highly estimated to ensure that the network of information security protection of critical infrastructure can be delicately interwoven together because plenty of important critical infrastructures in the U.S. still depend on the maintenance and operation of private sectors.



1.Cf. Luiijf, Eric A. M. , Helen H. Burger, and Marieke H. A. Klaver, “Critical Infrastructure Protection in the Netherlands:A Quick-scan”. In:Gattiker, Urs E. , Pia Pedersen, amd Karsten Petersen (eds. ) . EICAR Conference Best Paper Proceedings 2003, http://cip.gmu.edu/archive/2_NetherlandsCIdefpaper_2003.pdf (last accessed at 20. 07. 2009)
2.For each chapter of relevant legal cases, please visit http://academic.udayton.edu/health/syllabi/Bioterrorism/5DiseaseReport/USAPatriotAct.htm. The text regarding the definition of critical infrastructure is cited as "Critical Infrastructure Defined- In this section, the term “critical infrastructure” means systems and assets, whether physical or virtual, so vital to the United States that the incapacity or destruction of such systems and assets would have a debilitating impact on security, national economic security, national public health or safety, or any combination of those matter. "

1.Cf. Luiijf, Eric A. M. , Helen H. Burger, and Marieke H. A. Klaver, “Critical Infrastructure Protection in the Netherlands:A Quick-scan”. In:Gattiker, Urs E. , Pia Pedersen, amd Karsten Petersen (eds. ) . EICAR Conference Best Paper Proceedings 2003, http://cip.gmu.edu/archive/2_NetherlandsCIdefpaper_2003.pdf (last accessed at 20. 07. 2009)
2.For each chapter of relevant legal cases, please visit http://academic.udayton.edu/health/syllabi/Bioterrorism/5DiseaseReport/USAPatriotAct.htm. The text regarding the definition of critical infrastructure is cited as "Critical Infrastructure Defined- In this section, the term “critical infrastructure” means systems and assets, whether physical or virtual, so vital to the United States that the incapacity or destruction of such systems and assets would have a debilitating impact on security, national economic security, national public health or safety, or any combination of those matter. "
3.Introduction of Consumer Protection in Taiwan , Republic of China , Consumer Protection Commission (CPC), Executive Yuan.http://www.fas.org/irp/offdocs/nspd/hspd-7.html ( Last visit 2008/6/27 )

※The Coverage and Policies of Critical Infrastructure Protection in U.S.,STLI, https://stli.iii.org.tw/en/article-detail.aspx?no=105&tp=2&i=169&d=6126 (Date:2024/02/27)
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Implementing Information Security to Protect Individuals' Privacy

The development of new technology is bound to have both positive and negative effects. However, when a new technology is first introduced, it is common for insufficient attention to be paid to its negative aspects, either because there has not been time to accumulate sufficient experience in using it or because users are blinded by the potential benefits. It is only later, when the technology begins to be abused, that people wake up to the potential dangers. The evolution of computers and the Internet is a classic example of this phenomenon. While the rapid development of information technology has helped to stimulate the flow of information in every corner of society, cyberspace has also become the setting for a wide range of criminal activities. In many cases, countries' existing legal and regulatory frameworks have proved inadequate to cope with the threat posed by the various forms of unauthorized access. A variety of forms of cyber-crime have developed, including denial-of-service attacks, unauthorized accessing of databases, phishing, identity theft and online fraud or intimidation. Cyber-crime may involve making unauthorized use of individuals' personal information, stealing companies' confidential business information or selling state secrets; these new types of crime thus affect every level of society. The effects can be catastrophic, hence the growing importance is now being attached to information security, including both the establishment of effective management mechanisms to prevent cyber-crime from occurring in the first place and the development of the capabilities needed to detect such crime when it occurs. Recognizing the need to plug the gaps in the existing legal and regulatory framework in the face of cyber-crime, countries all over the world are working on the formulation of new legislation, and Taiwan is no exception. The following sections will discuss the key developments in the laws and regulations governing information security in Taiwan in recent years. I. The Convention on Cyber-crime and Chapter 36 of Taiwan’s Criminal Code (offences relating to the abuse of computers) Today, governments throughout the world are formulating measures to combat criminal activity that makes use of the Internet (cyber-crime). In many cases these measures are based on the Convention on Cyber-crime announced by the European Commission on November 23, 2001, and which came into effect on July 1, 2004. This convention is the first international agreement to be established specifically to combat cyber-crime. Its contents include discussion of the various types of cyber-crime, regulations governing the obtaining of electronic evidence, provisions for mutual assistance between nations in judicial matters with respect to cyber-crime and measures to encourage multilateral collaboration. The European Commission asked all signatory nations to revise their own national laws so that they conform to the provisions of the Convention, with the aim of establishing a unified international framework for combating cyber-crime. Responding to the international trend towards the enactment of legislation to fight cyber-crime and to eliminate any loopholes in Taiwanese law that might result in Taiwan becoming a haven for cyber-criminals, on June 25, 2003 the Taiwanese government added a new chapter, Chapter 36 (Offences Relating to the abuse of Computers) to Taiwan's Criminal Code. It contains six articles covering four types of crime: unauthorized access (Article 358), the unauthorized acquisition, deletion or titleeration of electromagnetic records (Article 359), unauthorized use of or interference with a computer system (Article 360) and creating computer programs specifically for the perpetration of a crime (Article 362). Article 361 specifies that more severe punishment should be imposed in the case of violations carried out against the computers or other equipment of a public service organization, and Article 363 states that the provisions of Articles 358–360 shall apply only after prosecution is instituted upon complaint. These new articles provide a clear legal basis for the punishment of common types of cyber-crime such as unauthorized access by hackers, the spreading of computer viruses and the use of Trojan horse programs. In formulating these articles, reference was made to the categorization of cyber-crimes used in the Convention on Cyber-crime and to the suggestions for revision of national laws put forward there. Article 36 is thus in broad conformity with current international practice in this regard and can be expected to achieve significant results in terms of combating cyber-crime. II. 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Warrants for such surveillance may only be issued if the content of the communications is related to a threat to national security or to the maintenance of social order. Furthermore, the crime in question must be a serious one. In principle, the period for which surveillance is implemented should not exceed 30 days. These restrictions reflect the government’s determination to ensure that citizens' right to privacy is protected. While the Internet is an environment conducive to the maintenance of anonymity, electromagnetic records are easy to erase. Effective investigation of cyber-crime requires automatic recording of communications by the equipment used to transmit the messages, that is to say, it requires the retention of historic data. As regards the extent to which companies are required to collaborate with law enforcement agencies and the conditions applying to the making available of electromagnetic records, these issues relate to the public's right to privacy, and the law in this area needs to be very clear and precise. For the most part, data retention obligations are laid down in Taiwan’s Telecommunications Act. In Taiwan ISPs are classed as "Type II Telecommunications Operators". Article 27 of the Administrative Regulations on Type II Telecommunications Businesses stipulates that Type II telecommunications operators may be required to confirm the existence of, and provide the contents of, customers' communications for the purpose of investigation or collection of evidence upon request in accordance with the requirements of the law. 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A new Personal Data Protection Act, drawn up with reference to the European Union’s Directive (95/46/EC) on the Protection of Individuals with regard to the Processing of Personal Data and on the Free Movement of Such Data and the personal information protection legislation adopted in the USA and Japan, has already been submitted to the Legislative Yuan for deliberation. The key differences between this new Act and the existing Computer-processed Personal Data Protection Law are as follows. Protection is no longer industry-specific, it now applies to both natural and juristic persons and to both public and private agencies. The scope of protection has been expanded to include hard copies of documents containing personal information, and five new types of "sensitive information" – information relating to criminal records, medical examinations, medical records, sexual history and genetic information – have been added. Special restrictions apply to the collection and processing of these types of data. The Personal Data Protection Act also imposes stricter requirements on public and private agencies with regard to the protection of individuals' personal data. For example, agencies must formulate personal data protection plans and measures for dealing with personal data once those data are no longer needed for business purposes. If an agency discovers that an individual's personal data have been stolen, leaked, titleered or violated in any way, they are required to notify by telephone or letter the agency responsible for notifying the individual concerned as soon as possible. If these provisions are violated, the agency's responsible person will be liable for administrative punishment. The new Act also gives regulatory authorities greater powers to undertaking auditing in this area, makes provision for class action suits and increases the amount of compensation to be paid to victims. It is expected that these mechanisms will help boost awareness of the importance of information security in all sectors, thereby helping to ensure better protection for the public's personal information. IV. Management of Unsolicited Commercial E-Mail The widespread utilization of e-mail has created a brand new marketing channel, so that e-mail can fairly be described as one of the most important "killer applications" to which the Internet has given rise. Today, spamming is causing serious problems for both e-mail users and ISPs. E-mail users are concerned about their privacy being violated and about having their e-mail box stuffed full of junk e-mail. Spamming also ties up bandwidth which could be used for other purposes, and Distributed Denial of Service Attacks (DDOS) can make it difficult for ISPs to provide normal service to their customers. Governments throughout the world have begun to consider whether anti-spamming legislation may be necessary. In Taiwan draft legislation of this type has already been submitted to the Legislative Yuan. Taiwan's Anti-SPAM Act was drawn up with reference to the USA's CAN-SPAM Act of 2003, Japan's Law on Regulation of Transmission of Specified Electronic Mail, Australia's SPAM Act and the UK's Privacy and Electronic Communications (EC Directive) Regulations 2003. The draft SPAM Act contains 13 articles, with an emphasis on self-regulation, technology filtering and provision for seeking compensation through civil action. The Act provides for the use of an "opt-out" mechanism to regulate the behavior of e-mail senders, with the following obligations to be imposed on them. (1) The sender must specify in the "Subject" field of the e-mail whether it is a "business communication" or "advertising" to facilitate filtering by ISPs and to make clear to the recipient what type it is. (2) The sender must provide accurate information, including header, information on the sender's identity and the sender's e-mail address. (3) E-mails may not be sent if the sender knows or could be expected to know that the intended recipient has already expressed a wish not to receive e-mail from this source. E-mails may also not be sent if the sender knows or could be expected to know that the information in the "Subject" field is inaccurate or misleading. If the sender continues to send e-mails after the recipient has expressed a clear wish not to receive any more from the sender or if the sender falsifies the "Subject" or header information, then the sender may be required to pay compensation to the recipient at a rate of NT$500–2,000 per person per e-mail. With regard to the widespread practice whereby companies or advertising agencies commission third parties to send junk e-mail on their behalf, in cases where the commissioning party knows or could be expected to know that e-mail is being sent in violation of the above regulations, the commissioning party shall be held jointly liable with the party sending the e-mail. Through the implementation of this new law, the government hopes to establish a first-class Internet environment in Taiwan, putting an end to the current situation whereby large numbers of businesses are engaged in spamming. V. Conclusions Security is the biggest single factor affecting the implementation of e-government initiatives, e-business application adoption and Internet user confidence. Most people associate information security only with the purchasing of security hardware or software and the setting up of firewalls. While these products can indeed help to make the online environment more secure, Internet users should not allow themselves to be lulled into thinking that buying these products will in and of itself be sufficient to ensure security. "Security" is a fluid concept. Over time, the level of security that even a high-end product can provide will deteriorate; the fact that your system is secure now does not guarantee that it will remain secure in the future. Evidence that this is true is provided by the damage that is constantly being caused by viruses, by the need to constantly update security products and by the shift in emphasis away from virus prevention and firewalls towards preventing "backdoor" attacks and towards proactive intrusion detection. Furthermore, the information security risks that companies and organizations have to deal with are not limited to external threats; poor internal management may result in employees selling or leaking customer data or other company data, which can cause serious damage to the organization. Examination of information security theory and practice in Taiwan and overseas suggests that the establishment of effective information security measures embraces four main areas: the detection of cyber-crime, development of new information security technologies and formulation of standards, education and management of computer users and regulatory and policy issues. The most important of these is the education and management of computer users. Detection of cyber-crime is the next most important, while development of new technologies and standard setting and the regulatory and policy aspects play a supporting role. To create a genuinely secure online environment, attention must be paid to all of these. Today governments throughout the world are formulating new legislation to plug the gaps in the regulatory framework governing the online environment. Given the need to let the market mechanism operate freely and to refrain from measures that might retard industrial development, government interference in the Internet, with the exception of crime prevention activity, has generally been viewed as a last resort. Currently the government in Taiwan is still focusing mainly on self-regulation by Internet service providers and other types of business enterprise, and the government's role is still largely confined to formulating standards and assisting with the development of new security products. The area on which both the government and the private sector will need to concentrate in the future is educating and ensuring effective management of computer users.

Introduction to the compulsory licensing mechanism of US music copyrights

With digital music industry rising and flourishing these years, in 1995 the US Congress amended the compulsory licensing regulations in the US Copyright Act to include digital music service in the scope of compulsory licensing. By doing so,it tries to save the industry from deprivation in copyright negotiations and to prevent detrimental effects on music circulation. By introducing the compulsory licensing regulations for music copyrights in the US Copyright Act, this paper wishes to provide a reference for the Taiwanese government to amend Taiwan’s copyright act to promote the development of the digital music industry. I. Exclusive rights in digital music copyright According to the US Copyright, the copyright owner has the exclusive rights to do and to authorize any of the following1: To reproduce the copyrighted work in copies or phonorecords; To prepare derivative works based upon the copyrighted work; To distribute copies or phonorecords of the copyrighted work to the public by sale or other transfer of ownership, or by rental, lease, or lending; In the case of literary, musical, dramatic, and choreographic works, pantomimes, and motion pictures and other audiovisual works, to perform the copyrighted work publicly; In the case of literary, musical, dramatic, and choreographic works, pantomimes, and pictorial, graphic, or sculptural works, including the individual images of a motion picture or other audiovisual work, to display the copyrighted work publicly; and In case of sound recordings, to perform the copyrighted work publicly by means of digital music transfer. If it is to be enforced by law that musical works can only be provided after the approval and authorization of the copyright owner, this will be unfavorable for the circulation of musical works. In terms of users, this may mean additional difficulties in providing musical works. Therefore, in addition to negotiating with the copyright owner of the licensing affairs, the US Copyright Act prescribes the compulsory licensing system. As long as the form of use does not violate any terms specified in the Copyright Act, service providers may obtain a license by means of compulsory licensing in order to lawfully “distribute copies or phonorecords of the copyrighted work to the public by sale or other transfer of ownership, or by rental, lease, or lending.2” 1. Scope of compulsory license According to Section 115 of the US Copyright Act, limitation on compulsory licensing comprises two sections3: (1) The scope of compulsory licensing is limited to the “exclusive rights provided by clauses (1) and (3) of section 106”; i.e. “to distribute copies or phonorecords of the copyrighted work to the public by sale or other transfer of ownership, or by rental, lease, or lending.” (2) A compulsory license can only be applied for unless the copyrighted works are Non-dramatic musical works; phonorecords of a non-dramatic musical work which have been distributed to the public in the United States under the authority of the copyright owner; and phonorecords made by a person whose primary purpose is to distribute them to the public for private use. (1) The scope of compulsory licensing is limited to the “exclusive rights provided by clauses (1) and (3) of section 106”; i.e. “to distribute copies or phonorecords of the copyrighted work to the public by sale or other transfer of ownership, or by rental, lease, or lending.” (2) A compulsory license can only be applied for unless the copyrighted works are Non-dramatic musical works; phonorecords of a non-dramatic musical work which have been distributed to the public in the United States under the authority of the copyright owner; and phonorecords made by a person whose primary purpose is to distribute them to the public for private use. (1) The scope of compulsory licensing is limited to the “exclusive rights provided by clauses (1) and (3) of section 106”; i.e. “to distribute copies or phonorecords of the copyrighted work to the public by sale or other transfer of ownership, or by rental, lease, or lending.” (2) A compulsory license can only be applied for unless the copyrighted works are Non-dramatic musical works; phonorecords of a non-dramatic musical work which have been distributed to the public in the United States under the authority of the copyright owner; and phonorecords made by a person whose primary purpose is to distribute them to the public for private use. Later on, to facilitate the application of the emerging digital sound delivery technology and the development of the digital music industry, in 1995 the US Congress passed the Digital Performance Right in Sound Recording Act of 1995 (DPRA) by which Section 115 of the Copyright Act was amended and the Digital Phonorecord Deliveries (DPD) was added. Based on these, the DPD can enjoy compulsory licensing to deliver digital music service. 2. Entitlement of compulsory license Any person who wishes to obtain a compulsory license shall, before or within thirty days after making the recording, and before distributing any phonorecords of the work, serve notice of intention to do so on the copyright owner. The notice shall comply, in form, content, and manner of service, with the requirements that the Register of Copyrights shall prescribe by regulation. If the registration or other public records of the Copyright Office do not identify the copyright owner and include an address at which the notice can be served, it shall be sufficient to file the notice of intention in the Copyright Office4. After obtaining the compulsory license, service providers shall deliver to the copyright owner or its designated collecting agent the information relating to the royalty of the month and the successes or failures of downloading within twenty days from the end of every month5. If service owners are unable to identify how to deliver the royalty to the copyright owner, the collecting agent shall keep the royalties for the compulsorily licensed nondramatic musical works for three years in an independent trust account. The collecting agent shall assume no responsibility for the safekeeping of such royalties if the copyright owner is unreachable within three years6. 3. Royalty for compulsory license The criteria for calculating the royalty of compulsory license are established by the Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panel formed by the Librarian of Congress. This panel updates the calculation criteria on a biennial basis. The calculation can be done by minute or by work. Applicants must pay the highest royalty calculated with either of the schemes7. 4. Limitation of compulsory license A compulsory licensee shall only reproduce or distribute specific sound recordings and shall not use the work in the making of phonorecords duplicating a sound recording fixed by another; unless the making of the phonorecords was authorized by the owner of the copyright in the sound recording or such sound recording was fixed lawfully.8 II. Conclusions Though compulsory licensing terms have been specified in the Copyright Law of Taiwan, users only need to apply for a compulsory license for sound recordings published for a full six months and the sound recording is used in the making of other musical works for sale9. In this case, the digital music industry will be unable to obtain a compulsory license to deliver lawful services, and negotiation with the copyright owner has thus become a prerequisite for service providers to deliver lawful services. As a result, service providers often become the weaker side of the negotiation and must pay the copyright owner a very substantial royalty. Consequently, the cost of the services will increase. In the future, if the government can amend the copyright law to include the reproduction and delivery of digital music in the scope of compulsory license of sound recordings with reference to the compulsory license terms for sound recordings in the US Copyright Act, service providers can have other access to obtain a license for sound recordings to deliver lawful digital music service other than negotiations with the copyright owner. It is believed that this will promote the fair royalties of sound recording licensing in Taiwan and the development of digital music application service industry in Taiwan. 17 U.S.C.A. §§ 106 17 U.S.C.A. §§ 115 17 U.S.C.A. §§ 115(a)(1). 17 U.S.C.A. §§ 115(b)(1). 17 U.S.C.A. §§ 115(c)(5). 68 FR 57815 See the following for details of royalty criteria for compulsory license: U.S. Copyright Office, Mechanical License Rates-Copyright Royalty Rates Section 115, the Mechanical License, available at http://www.copyright.gov/carp/m200a.html (last visited 2007/8/17) 17 U.S.C.A. §§ 115(a)(1). Article 69, Copyright Law.

Open Government Data in Taiwan

In the recent years, the tide of open movement has pushed vigorously from the open source software, open hardware and the recent open data. More and more countries have joined the global initiative of open government data in order to achieve the ultimate goal to promote the democratic governance. National government adopts open data policy to enhance the transparency, participation and collaboration of the citizen into the government operation. Meanwhile, fueled by the knowledge economy and the statistical analysis of the big data technology, open government data could work as the catalyst to individuals, industries and government agencies to transform data into potential knowledge-based services. Up to the end of 2013, there are around 77 countries have adopted the Open Government Data policy. Taiwanese government also declared to take part in the open data revolution. The government had officially launched the open data policy in 2012. In Resolution No. 3322, the Executive Yuan prescribes that open government data could enhance the transparency of the government; improve the quality of life of people; and meet the needs of the industry. Governmental agencies under the authority of the Executive Yuan shall to recognize the importance of the empowerment brought from open government data to the quality of the decision-making process and asked the agencies to implemented the policy from the perspectives of the user’s needs and applications, and also the consider to include machine readable format for the data. The Executive Yuan directed the Research, Development and Evaluation Commission (RDEC)(行政院研究發展考核委員會) to develop related principles and measures to support government agencies of the Executive Yuan to plan, execute and open up their data. At the same time, it also directed the Industrial Development Bureau(IDB), Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA) (經濟部工業局)to develop responsive strategies to cope with the industrial development. Pursuant to the Resolution No. 3322 of the Executive Yuan, RDEC worked through the open government data related laws and regulations, proclaimed the “Open Government Data Operating Principle for Agencies of the Executive Yuan”(行政院及所屬各級機關政府資料開放作業原則)and the “Essential Requirements for Administrate Open Government Data Datasets” (政府資料開放資料集管理要項)in the early 2013. All government agencies of the Executive Yuan have to adopted the following 3 open government data steps:"open up government data for public use”, “provide data free of charge subject to certain exemptions”, "automated systematic release and exchange data”, and work in with 4 open government focus strategies: “release data actively and by the priority in the field of daily necessity”, “develop the norm of open government data”, “promote the use of Data.gov.tw”, and “demonstrate and advocate open government data services”. Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA) (經濟部工業局)also provided grants ($9,200 NTD) to the open government data value-added applications and development. The open government data platform (data.gov.tw) was launched in July, 2013, as the official Taiwan government site providing public access and reuse of government data sets from 62 government agencies of the Executive Yuan, including the Ministry of Interior (MOI)(內政部), Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA)(外交部), Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA)(經濟部), Council for Economic Planning and Development (CEPD)(行政院經濟建設發展委員會), Hakka Affairs Council (HAC)(客家委員會), Water Resources Agency, Ministry of Economic Affairs (WRA) (經濟部水利署), and 4 local governments. At the end of 2013, each government agency is required to release at least 55 data sets. In addition, the rising tide of private-sector (individual or enterprise) also aims to mine the gold in open government data. Act upon the National Information and Communication Initiative (NICI)(行政院國家資訊通信發展推動小組)in the consultation of the open government data policy, Taipei Computer Association (TCA)(台北市電腦同業工會)organized the “Open Data Alliance” (ODA)(Open Data聯盟)as a bridge between the information provide-side (public sectors) and the demand-side (private sectors), to communicate and coordinate the expectations and needs from communities (bottom-up) towards open government data. On Dec. 11, 2013, Taiwan took one more step in the global open data initiative. Open Data Alliance (ODA) and the Open Data Institute (ODI) in UK signed the memorandum of understanding (MOU) and announced the alliance established to promote and explore the potential opportunities of open data holds for the public, private and academic sectors. The engagement of ODA and ODI could bring another catalyst for the open movement in Taiwan to take one big step in the international community. According to a survey from ODA, the biggest challenge so far is the available data sets do not really meet the needs of the industry. And most of the feedback reflects the concerns in licensing, charge, frequency of updates, data formats and data quality. These voices echo the open government data issues encountered in many countries. There are still some obstacles with the applicable laws and regulations (for example, Charges and Fees Act, Personal Data Protection Act, Accoutability & Liability etc.) wait to be solved before both public and private sectors to go onto the next level of open data development.

Challenges and Opportunities from Digital Convergence

Preface With the blooming of IT technologies, the term of “digital convergence” represents the whole atmosphere at this moment. “Digital convergence”—means that after telecommunication and broadcasting systems are following the IP based framework, contents and services, those were easy to define, turn to be confused. Relying on the uniform platform, operators are able to provide services to different systems. Services containing VoIP, IPTV or the latest terms of “Multi-screen Ecosystem” and “Connected TV” are all involved in the “digital convergence” notion. Today, no matter the service of “check in” or “watching TV programs on Smartphone,” any figures about multiple services on different devices are presenting the “digital convergence” effect. On the consumer side, “digital convergence” brings a fascinating imagination of life. Time and space are no more limitations to people for getting information. Consumers select services only depending on the quality of each service. However, the fascinating imagination of customers becomes a pressure to the relative industries. In the past, because of distinctive transmission technique, services of television, internet and information were regarded as in different industries. Effective competitors only appeared in the same industry. However, today “digital convergence” effect results in crossing-industries competition and customer immigration. To accommodating and pursue the new trend, only unique ideas and novel services can help incumbents to survive. “Digital convergence” brings not only a challenge but also an opportunity. Today, user-friendly application services are cumulatively created and accommodated in the mature broadband network. For examples, high quality entertainment services occur after communication and multimedia broadcasting techniques are improved, “Near Field Communication” technology rising causes new types of cash flow services. Otherwise, Cloud Computing technique enables people easily to access tele-healthcare services and Telematics services. Certainly, digital convenience accelerating industries transformation and value-added services is now taking place around us. According to ITU reports, every 10% increase of broadband infrastructure extension might cause 0.255 to 1.38% GDP growth rate. High penetration of broadband infrastructure might lead a significant influence on economy growth. Take South Korean experiences as an example, by owing a complete broadband infrastructure, on-line game industry and national digital content industry in this country are individually possessing $8.3 billion and $ 3.4 billion output value. By sensing the potential possibilities, governments in different countries propose their own national industry policies, including American government proposed “National Broadband Plan”, the “Digital Britain White Paper” formulated by United Kingdom, “Hikari no Michi”(光の道, which means fiber superhighway) in Japan and the “Ultra-Broadband Convergence Network Plan (UBcN plan)” in South Korea, moreover, the “Tri-networks Integration Plan” in China. And Taiwan does not absent in this moment. In order to stand firmly in this trend, we also formulate “Digital Convergence Development Program 2010-2015 (DCDP 2010-2012)” in 2010. Below, we are going to make a briefly and neat description of “DCDP 2010-2012”. 1.INTRODUCTION For assisting national relative industries to smoothly transform and enhancing Taiwan’s international competitiveness, Executive Yuan admitted the “Digital Convergence Development Program 2010-2015 (DCDP 2012-2015)” in 2010. In this program, there were six main goals containing: (1) complement the broadband superhighway infrastructure; (2) initiate the convergence of telecommunication services; (3) accelerate the process of Television digitization; (4) develop emerging internet video services; (5) improve communication industries; and (6) establish an integrity regulation framework, as well as twenty-one improving tactics and seventy-eight measures for crossing- administrations cooperation and negotiation to be declared. Otherwise, Executive Yuan also established DCTF to be responsible for coordinating every effort from every administration and facilitate digital convergence tasks. Latter, we will make further descriptions for the six main goals, we just mentioned above: A.Complement the broadband superhighway infrastructure According to the Global Information Technology Report 2010-2011, proposed by World Economic Forum (WEF), Taiwan on the Network Readiness Index (NRI) item was been ranked at 6th place and at 5th place on another item of highest FTTH/FTTB penetration. However, though our coverage of broadband network was high, the total bandwidth was still insufficient to contain all the new creating services. To resolving the shortage of bandwidth, including Ministry of the Interior (MOI), Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA), Ministry of Transportation and Communications (MOTC) and National Communications Commission (NCC) were convened to extend the national fiber coverage and facilitate the installation upgrade. Regarding wireless broadband construction, administrations including MOEA, MOTC and NCC were under obligation to energetically detect the latest developments of wireless telecommunication technologies as well as proposed guidelines from other countries, concerning about the allocation of spectrum, telephone numbers and IP address resources. Through crossing-administrations cooperation and coordination, in December 2011, the total of national subscribers applying fiber network service had achieved 3.31 million houses, besides, there were 24.58% houses in Taiwan possessed 100Mbps broadband network services. Totally, there were 7.88 million wireless broadband accounts being applied. B.Initiate the convergence of telecommunication services Smartphone booming brought an emerging mobile entertainment life style, furthermore, it also accelerated the rising of mobile value-added application services. To this trend, administrations containing MOEA, Financial Supervisory Commission (FSC) and NCC all devoted to establishing a constructive environment, with providing assists and building up a complete regulation framework. For examples, up to the end of 2011, national telecommunication operators had signed a memorandum with EasyCard Corporation to develop a mobile cash flow platform, which allows cash flowing through the Internet, for giving people a more convenient experience. C.Accelerate the process of Television digitization Within various emerging application services, “Television digitization” might be the most important one in people’s life. “Television digitization” service brought not only a higher quality experience of watching programs, but also created extra demands of relative application services. Furthermore, increasing demands also bought an improvement to the industry and simultaneously accelerating the development of digital content industry. Nationwide terrestrial TV signal switching program, a fully signal switching from analog to digital, has accomplished in July 2012. In order to achieve 90% coverage rate of digital signal transmission, accommodations containing Council of Indigenous People (CIP) and NCC were not only devoted to establishing a Digitization Improvement Station, but also attempt to integrate all signals from original terrestrial TV stations into one satellite to transmit. To accomplish this signal switching program, government had cultivated for many years and try to increase people’s acceptance level of high definition (HD) TV service. Before receiving this success, NCC had spent a long time devoting itself to integrating containing every effort from many administrations and associations, such as the local governments, national industry associations and operators of household application, moreover, as well as Public Enterprises, including Taiwan Power Company, Chunghwa Post Corporation and Taiwan Water Corporation to popularizing this program. Nevertheless, about the digitization program of cable TV, up to 2010, though there were already 60% of houses in Taiwan possessing cable TV service, only 5.55% of cable TV houses switched into digital. As a result, we found that no incentive measures might be the crucial reason. To reverse the impasse, our strategy was to amend the current laws, through adjusting the regulation framework we could facilitate the market into effective competition. In addition, to accelerate the cable TV digitization process, government also regarded the Olympic relaying in England as a turning point to create the demands of HD TV service. After getting the franchise, people are able to watch Olympic Games through any platforms, including terrestrial TV, cable TV and even IPTV. As the demands arising, it would also encourage operators to produce more HD programs afterward. D.Develop emerging internet video services Digital convergence effect also caused the emerging internet video services booming. In order to encourage the crossing-platforms video services and achieve 50% user rate in 2015, there were three guidelines been proposed. The first one was emerging video service regulation reforming, the second one was facilitating integration between emerging accessing approaches and distribution channels, and the third one, developing a rational regulation on contents management. In synchromesh with terrestrial TV signal switching program, emerging internet video services were also assigned to provide HD Olympic Games programs. In that period, the subscribers of Chunghwa Telecom’s MOD (Multimedia on Demand) service were able to watch the Olympic Games relaying on 14 free HD channels and 1 free 3D channel, which is provided by ELETA TV. Moreover, they could also receive the programs on demand through internet or Smartphone. Afterward, from the collected data, we found that even though the rate of new subscribers only had a few rise, an obviously rose presented on the turning on rate. Depended on those data, we believe that people had already been more familiar with IPTV and HD programs. Besides, this relaying program totally attracted 95 individual advertising and the total revenue from advertising was NT$ 80 million dollars. E.Improve communication industries Producing prolific contents is the key element for attracting customers and stabilizing the development of digital convergence industry. To facilitate the contents producing, DCDP proposed three elements to be improved: fund, talent and marketing. And the tasks of these three elements were including investment facilitation, marketing skill reinforce, personal training as well as culture protection, consumer’s right protection, technique standardization and transnational cooperation. To assist in industries transformation, MOEA focused on promoting the APP design and upgrades. Recently, measures provided by MOEA, such as transformation counseling, R&D subsidies, drive-by VC investment, personal training and even the R&D loan had already taken effect. In addition, to create a virtuous investment circles in contents industry, government also considered to release more subsidies to encouraged those superior producers and movie makers. F.Establishing an integrity regulation framework Digital convergence effect accelerated the competition in the market, including communication or relative contents industries were enter a transformation era. In this period, it was essential to have a practical and integrity regulation framework. Recently, NCC hastened to undertake the amendments of three Acts, containing Radio and Television Act, Cable Radio and Television Act and Satellite Broadcasting Act. Actually, the expectation of this undertaking was to adopt the adjustment of digital convergence in 2014. In addition, Fair Trade Commission (FTC) and Intellectual Property Office (IPO) would also continue to observe the digital convergence influences in 4C (telecommunication, cable television, computer network and e-commerce) and contents (copyright) industries. 2.Second Edition of DCDP and Primly Policies Indicators Advance Since DCDP was launched, it has caused a tremendous response. Nevertheless, rapidly advanced ICT technologies inspire people’s expectations. Recently, it has already overtaken the anticipations of used DCDP. Therefore, to formulate a prescient version, Executive Yuan adopted the second edition of DCDP 2010-2015 in May 2012. In the second edition, an item of “producing prolific TV programs” is added to be the seventh main subjects, in addition, there are five extra items added in the improving tactics part; moreover, the number of measures increased to 107 items. Digital convergence indicators are also reformulated. First, 100Mbps wired broadcasting service should achieve 100% in 2013, and the second, accomplishing 100% digitization of cable TV in 2014. To achieve these indicators, relative administrations decide to accelerate the network infrastructure complementing process and cable TV digitization process. Simultaneously, they also consider extending their regulatory scale from emerging internet video services to the connected TV industries, and enhancing superior programs producing by policy making. In point of accelerating network infrastructure complementing process, a complete broadband network is a foundation of digital convergence industry. However, a “complete” network indicates not only the non-discriminatory access to the hardware, but also mention about having reasonable prices to access broadband services. By considering of Telecommunication operators and cable TV operators are both provides of broadband services, the digitization issue of cable TV industry is also concerned in the DCDP. As a primary enemy to Telecommunication operators in the convergence market, cable TV operators’ competitiveness does not come from the their large share on the cable TV market, but from their possession of wide spread cable network. Otherwise, various new creating contents and application are also encouraged in the DCDP. With “Smart TV,” “HDTV” and “Connected TV” booming, “TV” has transformed from a passive receiving media to an information transport. Although, those emerging broadcasting techniques might threaten the traditional television industry, they bring positive influences to the media industry. By considering a well-run development must building on a integrity and friendly regulation framework. DCTF, an office established by Exclusive Yuan, will also take its responsible to assist NCC on the digital convergence regulatory issues. 3.Conclusion Digital convergence effect to us is a turbulence but also a moment. Today, this effect, which originally comes from the techniques convergence, has detonated in different nations and various places; crossing-industries competition turns to be more and more common around the world. To accommodate our nation to this trend, the primary strategy proposed by government is to integrate administrations’ effort. Through policies making, including DCDP upgrading and validly relative regulation frameworks amending, every relative industry is able to restore enough energy and seize the moment, further, naturally turns to be a domain of market competition.

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