The EU's New Legal Framework for European Research Infrastructure

Recognized that Research infrastructures (RIs) are at the centre of the knowledge triangle of research, education and innovation and play an increasingly important role in the advancement of knowledge and technology, the EU began to finance for the establishments of RIs by its Framework Programmes (FPs) since the start of FP2 of 1987. On the other hand, the EU also assigned the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) to develop a coherent and strategy-led approach to policy-making on RIs between Member States and to facilitate the better use and development of RIs at EU and international level.

Based on those efforts, the European Commission understood that a major difficulty in setting up RIs between EU countries is the lack of an adequate legal framework allowing the creation of appropriate partnerships and proposed a legal framework for a European research infrastructure adapted to the needs of such facilities. The new legal framework for a European Research Infrastructure Consortium (ERIC) entered into force on 28 August 2009. An successfully-set-up ERIC will have the legal personality based on EU law, and can benefit from exemptions from VAT and excise duty in all EU Member States and may adopt its own procurement procedures to get rid of the EU's public procurement procedures. It is predicted that the Biobanking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure (BBMRI) will apply to become a BBMRI-ERIC in the near future. The EU also seeks to lead in Energy, Food and Biology through the reforms of ERICs to assist the high quality of activities of European scientists and attract the best researchers from around the world.

Besides, in order to connect the knowledge triangle effectively, the European Commission also established the European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT) on March 2008. It hopes through the research development partnership network to gather all the advantages from the science and technology chains of multiple areas, and make an effort for the strategy of EU innovation development jointly;Meanwhile, extends its roadmap to the objectives and practices of the Knowledge and Innovation Communities (KICs) of the EIT.

Contrast with the EU's advance, it is necessary to our government to concentrate and contemplate whether it is the time to reconsider if our existing legal instruments available to domestic research facilities and infrastructures are sufficient enough to reach our science and technology development goals.

※The EU's New Legal Framework for European Research Infrastructure,STLI, https://stli.iii.org.tw/en/article-detail.aspx?no=105&tp=2&i=168&d=6100 (Date:2024/05/18)
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The Key Elements for Data Intermediaries to Deliver Their Promise

The Key Elements for Data Intermediaries to Deliver Their Promise 2022/12/13   As human history enters the era of data economy, data has become the new oil. It feeds artificial intelligence algorithms that are disrupting how advertising, healthcare, transportation, insurance, and many other industries work. The excitement of having data as a key production input lies in the fact that it is a non-rivalrous good that does not diminish by consumption.[1] However, the fact that people are reluctant in sharing data due to privacy and trade secrets considerations has been preventing countries to realize the full value of data. [2]   To release more data, policymakers and researchers have been exploring ways to overcome the trust dilemma. Of all the discussions, data intermediaries have become a major solution that governments are turning to. This article gives an overview of relevant policy developments concerning data intermediaries and a preliminary analysis of the key elements that policymakers should consider for data intermediaries to function well. I. Policy and Legal developments concerning data intermediaries   In order to unlock data’s full value, many countries have started to focus on data intermediaries. For example, in 2021, the UK’s Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) commissioned the Centre for Data Ethics and Innovation (CDEI) to publish a report on data intermediaries[3] , in response to the 2020 National Data Strategy.[4] In 2020, the European Commission published its draft Data Governance Act (DGA)[5] , which aims to build up trust in data intermediaries and data altruism organizations, in response to the 2020 European Strategy for Data.[6] The act was adopted and approved in mid-2022 by the Parliament and Council; and will apply from 24 September 2023.[7] The Japanese government has also promoted the establishment of data intermediaries since 2019, publishing guidance to establish regulations on data trust and data banks.[8] II. Key considerations for designing effective data intermediary policy 1.Evaluate which type of data intermediary works best in the targeted country   From CDEI’s report on data intermediaries and the confusion in DGA’s various versions of data intermediary’s definition, one could tell that there are many forms of data intermediaries. In fact, there are at least eight types of data intermediaries, including personal information management systems (PIMS), data custodians, data exchanges, industrial data platforms, data collaboratives, trusted third parties, data cooperatives, and data trusts.[9] Each type of data intermediary was designed to combat data-sharing issues in specific countries, cultures, and scenarios. Hence, policymakers need to evaluate which type of data intermediary is more suitable for their society and market culture, before investing more resources to promote them.   For example, data trust came from the concept of trust—a trustee managing a trustor’s property rights on behalf of his interest. This practice emerged in the middle ages in England and has since developed into case law.[10] Thus, the idea of data trust is easily understood and trusted by the British people and companies. As a result, British people are more willing to believe that data trusts will manage their data on their behalf in their best interest and share their valuable data, compared to countries without a strong legal history of trusts. With more people sharing their data, trusts would have more bargaining power to negotiate contract terms that are more beneficial to data subjects than what individual data owners could have achieved. However, this model would not necessarily work for other countries without a strong foundation of trust law. 2.Quality signals required to build trust: A government certificate system can help overcome the lemon market problem   The basis of trust in data intermediaries depends largely on whether the service provider is really neutral in its actions and does not reuse or sell off other parties’ data in secret. However, without a suitable way to signal their service quality, the market would end up with less high-quality service, as consumers would be reluctant to pay for higher-priced service that is more secure and trustworthy when they have no means to verify the exact quality.[11] This lemon market problem could only be solved by a certificate system established by actors that consumers trust, which in most cases is the government.   The EU government clearly grasped this issue as a major obstacle to the encouragement of trust in data intermediaries and thus tackles it with a government register and verification system. According to the Data Government Act, data intermediation services providers who intend to provide services are required to notify the competent authority with information on their legal status, form, ownership structure, relevant subsidiaries, address, public website, contact details, the type of service they intend to provide, the estimated start date of activities…etc. This information would be provided on a website for consumers to review. In addition, they can request the competent authority to confirm their legal compliance status, which would in turn verify them as reliable entities that can use the ‘data intermediation services provider recognised in the Union’ label. 3.Overcoming trust issues with technology that self-enforces privacy: privacy-enhancing technologies (PETs)   Even if there are verified data intermediation services available, businesses and consumers might still be reluctant to trust human organizations. A way to boost trust is to adopt technologies that self-enforces privacy. A real-world example is OpenSAFELY, a data intermediary implementing privacy-enhancing technologies (PETs) to provide health data sharing in a secure environment. Through a federated analytics system, researchers are able to conduct research with large volumes of healthcare data, without the ability to observe any data directly. Under such protection, UK NHS is willing to share its data for research purposes. The accuracy and timeliness of such research have provided key insights to inform the UK government in decision-making during the COVID-19 pandemic.   With the benefits it can bring, unsurprisingly, PETs-related policies have become quite popular around the globe. In June 2022, Singapore launched its Digital Trust Centre (DTC) for accelerating PETs development and also signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the International Centre of Expertise of Montreal for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (CEIMIA) to collaborate on PETs.[12] On September 7th, 2022, the UK Information Commissioners’ Office (ICO) published draft guidance on PETs.[13] Moreover, the U.K. and U.S. governments are collaborating on PETs prize challenges, announcing the first phase winners on November 10th, 2022.[14] We could reasonably predict that more PETs-related policies would emerge in the coming year. [1] Yan Carrière-Swallow and Vikram Haksar, The Economics of Data, IMFBlog (Sept. 23, 2019), https://blogs.imf.org/2019/09/23/the-economics-of-data/#:~:text=Data%20has%20become%20a%20key,including%20oil%2C%20in%20important%20ways (last visited July 22, 2022). [2] Frontier Economics, Increasing access to data across the economy: Report prepared for the Department for Digital, Culture, Media, and Sport (2021), https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/974532/Frontier-access_to_data_report-26-03-2021.pdf (last visited July 22, 2022). [3] The Centre for Data Ethics and Innovation (CDEI), Unlocking the value of data: Exploring the role of data intermediaries (2021), https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/1004925/Data_intermediaries_-_accessible_version.pdf (last visited June 17, 2022). [4] Please refer to the guidelines for the selection of sponsors of the 2022 Social Innovation Summit: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/uk-national-data-strategy/national-data-strategy(last visited June 17, 2022). [5] Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on European data governance and amending Regulation (EU) 2018/1724 (Data Governance Act), 2020/0340 (COD) final (May 4, 2022). [6] Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and The Committee of the Regions— A European strategy for data, COM/2020/66 final (Feb 19, 2020). [7] Proposal for a Regulation on European Data Governance, European Parliament Legislative Train Schedule, https://www.europarl.europa.eu/legislative-train/theme-a-europe-fit-for-the-digital-age/file-data-governance-act(last visited Aug 17, 2022). [8] 周晨蕙,〈日本資訊信託功能認定指引第二版〉,科技法律研究所,https://stli.iii.org.tw/article-detail.aspx?no=67&tp=5&d=8422(最後瀏覽日期︰2022/05/30)。 [9] CDEI, supra note 3. [10] Ada Lovelace Institute, Exploring legal mechanisms for data stewardship (2021), 30~31,https://www.adalovelaceinstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/Legal-mechanisms-for-data-stewardship_report_Ada_AI-Council-2.pdf (last visited Aug 17, 2022). [11] George A. Akerlof, The Market for "Lemons": Quality Uncertainty and the Market Mechanism, THE QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS, 84(3), 488-500 (1970). [12] IMDA, MOU Signing Between IMDA and CEIMIA is a Step Forward in Cross-border Collaboration on Privacy Enhancing Technology (PET) (2022),https://www.imda.gov.sg/-/media/Imda/Files/News-and-Events/Media-Room/Media-Releases/2022/06/MOU-bet-IMDA-and-CEIMIA---ATxSG-1-Jun-2022.pdf (last visited Nov. 28, 2022). [13] ICO publishes guidance on privacy enhancing technologies, ICO, https://ico.org.uk/about-the-ico/media-centre/news-and-blogs/2022/09/ico-publishes-guidance-on-privacy-enhancing-technologies/ (last visited Nov. 27, 2022). [14] U.K. and U.S. governments collaborate on prize challenges to accelerate development and adoption of privacy-enhancing technologies, GOV.UK, https://www.gov.uk/government/news/uk-and-us-governments-collaborate-on-prize-challenges-to-accelerate-development-and-adoption-of-privacy-enhancing-technologies (last visited Nov. 28, 2022); Winners Announced in First Phase of UK-US Privacy-Enhancing Technologies Prize Challenges, NIST, https://www.nist.gov/news-events/news/2022/11/winners-announced-first-phase-uk-us-privacy-enhancing-technologies-prize (last visited Nov. 28, 2022).

Introduction to Taiwan’s Guidelines for Implementing Decentralized Elements in Medicinal Product Clinical Trials

Introduction to Taiwan’s Guidelines for Implementing Decentralized Elements in Medicinal Product Clinical Trials 2023/12/15 The development of digital tools such as the internet, apps, and wearable devices have meant major breakthroughs for clinical trials. These advances have the potential to reduce the frequency of trial subject visits, accelerate research timelines, and lower the costs of drug development. The COVID-19 pandemic has further accelerated the use of digital tools, prompting many countries to adopt decentralized measures that enable trial subjects to participate in clinical trials regardless of their physical location. In step with the transition into the post-pandemic era, the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration (TFDA) issued the Guidelines for Implementing Decentralized Elements in Medicinal Product Clinical Trials in June, 2023[1]. The Guidelines are intended to cover a wide array of decentralized measures; they aim to increase trial subjects’ willingness to participate in trials, reduce the need for in-person visits to clinical trial sites, enhance real-time data acquisition during trials, and enable clinic sponsors and contract research organizations to process data remotely. I. Key Points of Taiwan’s Guidelines for Implementing Decentralized Elements in Medicinal Product Clinical Trials The Guidelines cover primarily the following matters: General considerations for implementing decentralized measures; trial subject recruitment and electronic informed consent; delivery and provision of investigational medicinal products; remote monitoring of trial subject safety; trial subject reporting of adverse events; remote data monitoring; and information systems and electronic data collection/processing/storage. 1. General Considerations for Implementing Decentralized Measures (1) During clinical trial execution, a reduction in trial subject in-person visits may present challenges to medical observation. It is recommended that home visits for any given trial subject be conducted by the principal investigator, sub-investigator, or a single, consistent delegated study nurse. (2) Sponsors must carefully evaluate all of the trial design’s decentralization measures to ensure data integrity. (3) Sponsors must conduct risk assessments for each individual trial, and must confirm the rationality of choosing decentralized measures. These decentralized measures must also be incorporated into the protocol. (4) When electronically collecting data, sponsors must ensure information system reliability and data security. Artificial intelligence may be considered for use in decentralized clinical trials; sponsors must carefully evaluate such systems, especially when they touch on determinations for critical data or strategies. (5) As the design of decentralized clinical trials is to ensure equal access to healthcare services, it must provide patients with a variety of ways to participate in clinical trials. (6) When implementing any decentralized measures, it is essential to ensure that the principal investigator and sponsor adhere to the Regulations for Good Clinical Practice and bear their respective responsibilities for the trial. (7) The use of decentralized measures must be stated in the regulatory application, and the Checklist of Decentralized Elements in Medicinal Product Clinical Trials must be included in the submission. 2. Subject Recruitment and Electronic Informed Consent (1) Trial subject recruitment through social media or established databases may only be implemented after the Institutional Review Board reviews and approves of the recruitment methods and content. (2) Must comply with the Principles for Recruiting Clinical Trial Subjects in medicinal product trials, the Personal Data Protection Act, and other regulations. (3) Regarding clinical trial subject informed consent done through digital software or devices, if it complies with Article 4, Paragraph 2 of the Electronic Signatures Act, that is, if the content can be displayed in its entirety and continues to be accessible for subsequent reference, then so long as the trial subject agrees to do so, the signature may be done via a tablet or other electronic device. The storage of signed electronic Informed Consent Forms (eICF) must align with the aforementioned Principles and meet the competent authority’s access requirements. 3. Delivery and Provision of Investigational Medicinal Products (1) The method of delivering and providing investigational medicinal products and whether trial subjects can use them on their own at home depends to a high degree on the investigational medicinal product’s administration route and safety profile. (2) When investigational medicinal products are delivered and provided through decentralized measures to trial subjects, this must be documented in the protocol. The process of delivering and providing said products must also be clearly stated in the informed consent form; only after being explained to a trial subject by the trial team, and after the trial subject’s consent is obtained, may such decentralized measures be used. (3) Investigational products prescribed by the principal investigator/sub-investigator must be reviewed by a delegated pharmacist to confirm that the investigational products’ specific items, dosage, duration, total quantity, and labeling align with the trial design. The pharmacist must also review each trial subject’s medication history, to ensure there are no medication-related issues; only then, and only in a manner that ensures the investigational product’s quality and the subject’s privacy, may delegated and specifically-trained trial personnel provide the investigational product to the subject. (4) Compliance with relevant regulations such as the Pharmaceutical Affairs Act, Pharmacists Act, Regulations on Good Practices for Drug Dispensation, and Regulations for Good Clinical Practice is required. 4. Remote Monitoring of Subject Safety (1) Decentralized trial designs involve trial subjects performing relatively large numbers of trial-related procedures at home. The principal investigator must delegate trained, qualified personnel to perform tasks such as collecting blood samples, administering investigational products, conducting safety monitoring, doing adverse event tracking, etc. (2) If trial subjects receive protocol-prescribed testing at nearby medical facilities or laboratories rather than at the original trial site, these locations must be authorized by the trial sponsor and must have relevant laboratory certification; only then may they collect or analyze samples. Such locations must provide detailed records to the principal investigator, to be archived in the trial master file. (3) The trial protocol and schedule must clearly specify which visits must be conducted at the trial site; which can be conducted via phone calls, video calls, or home visits; which tests must be performed at nearby laboratories; and whether trial subjects have multiple or single options at each visit. 5. Subject Reporting of Adverse Events (1) If the trial uses a digital platform to enhance adverse event reporting, trial subjects must be able to report adverse events through the digital platform, such as via a mobile phone app; that is, the principal investigator must be able to immediately access such adverse event information. (2) The principal investigator must handle such reports using risk-based assessment methods. The principal investigator must validate the adverse event reporting platform’s effectiveness, and must develop procedures to identify potential duplicate reports. 6. Remote Data Monitoring (1) If a sponsor chooses to implement remote monitoring, it must perform a reasonability assessment to confirm the appropriateness of such monitoring and establish a remote monitoring plan. (2) The monitoring plan must include monitoring strategies, monitoring personnel responsibilities, monitoring methods, rationale for such implementation, and critical data and processes that must be monitored. It must also generate comprehensive monitoring reports for audit purposes. (3) The sponsor is responsible for ensuring the implementation of remote monitoring, and must conduct risk assessments regarding the implementation process’ data protection and information confidentiality. 7. Information Systems and Electronic Data Collection, Processing, and Storage (1) In accordance with the Regulations for Good Clinical Practice, data recorded in clinical trials must be trustworthy, reliable, and verifiable. (2) It must be ensured that all organizations participating in the clinical trial have a full picture of the data flow. It is recommended that the trial protocol and trial-related documents include data flow diagrams and additional explanations. (3) Define the types and scopes of subject personal data that will be collected, and ensure that every step in the process properly protects their data in accordance with the Personal Data Protection Act. II. A Comparison with Decentralized Trial Regulations in Other Countries Denmark became the first country in the world to release regulatory measures on decentralized trials, issuing the “Danish Medicines Agency’s Guidance on the Implementation of Decentralized Elements in Clinical Trials with Medicinal Products” in September 2021[2]. In December 2022, the European Union as a whole released its “Recommendation Paper on Decentralized Elements in Clinical Trials”[3]. The United States issued the draft “Decentralized Clinical Trials for Drugs, Biological Products, and Devices” document in May 2023[4]. The comparison in Table 1 shows that Taiwan’s guidelines a relatively similar in structure to those of Denmark and the EU; the US guidelines also cover medical device clinical trials. Table 1: Summary of Decentralized Clinical Trial Guidelines in Taiwan, Denmark, the European Union as a whole, and the United States Taiwan Denmark European Union as a whole United States What do the guidelines apply to? Medicinal products Medicinal products Medicinal products Medicinal products and medical devices Trial subject recruitment and electronic informed consent Covers informed consent process; informed consent interview; digital information sheet; trial subject consent form signing; etc. Covers informed consent process; informed consent interview; trial subject consent form signing; etc. Covers informed consent process; informed consent interview; digital information sheet; trial subject consent form signing; etc. Covers informed consent process; informed consent interview; etc. Delivery and provision of investigational medicinal products Delegated, specifically-trained trial personnel deliver and provide investigational medicinal products. The investigator or delegated personnel deliver and provide investigational medicinal products. The investigator, delegated personnel, or a third-party, Good Distribution Practice-compliant logistics provider deliver and provide investigational medicinal products. The principal investigator, delegated personnel, or a distributor deliver and provide investigational products. Remote monitoring of trial subject safety Trial subjects may do return visits at trial sites, via phone calls, via video calls, or via home visits, and may undergo testing at nearby laboratories. Trial subjects may do return visits at trial sites, via phone calls, via video calls, or via home visits, and may undergo testing at nearby laboratories. Trial subjects may do return visits at trial sites, via phone calls, via video calls, or via home visits. Trial subjects may do return visits at trial sites, via phone calls, via video calls, or via home visits, and may undergo testing at nearby laboratories. Trial subject reporting of adverse events Trial subjects may self-report adverse events through a digital platform. Trial subjects may self-report adverse events through a digital platform. Trial subjects may self-report adverse events through a digital platform. Trial subjects may self-report adverse events through a digital platform. Remote data monitoring The sponsor may conduct remote data monitoring. The sponsor may conduct remote data monitoring. The sponsor may conduct remote data monitoring (not permitted in some countries). The sponsor may conduct remote data monitoring. Information systems and electronic data collection, processing, and storage The recorded data must be credible, reliable, and verifiable. Requires an information system that is validated, secure, and user-friendly. The recorded data must be credible, reliable, and verifiable. Must ensure data reliability, security, privacy, and confidentiality. III. Conclusion The implementation of decentralized clinical trials must be approached with careful assessment of risks and rationality, with trial subject safety, rights, and well-being as top priorities. Since Taiwan’s Guidelines for Implementing Decentralized Elements in Medicinal Product Clinical Trials were just announced in June of this year, the status of decentralized clinical trial implementation is still pending industry feedback to confirm feasibility. The overall goal is to enhance and optimize the clinical trial environment in Taiwan. [1] 衛生福利部食品藥物管理署,〈藥品臨床試驗執行分散式措施指引〉,2023/6/12,https://www.fda.gov.tw/TC/siteListContent.aspx?sid=9354&id=43548(最後瀏覽日:2023/11/2)。 [2] [DMA] DANISH MEDICINES AGENCY, The Danish Medicines Agency’s guidance on the Implementation of decentralised elements in clinical trials with medicinal products (2021),https://laegemiddelstyrelsen.dk/en/news/2021/guidance-on-the-implementation-of-decentralised-elements-in-clinical-trials-with-medicinal-products-is-now-available/ (last visited Nov. 2, 2023). [3] [HMA] HEADS OF MEDICINES AGENCIES, [EC] EUROPEAN COMMISSION & [EMA] EUROPEAN MEDICINES AGENCY, Recommendation paper on decentralised elements in clinical trials (2022),https://health.ec.europa.eu/latest-updates/recommendation-paper-decentralised-elements-clinical-trials-2022-12-14_en (last visited Nov. 2, 2023). [4] [US FDA] US FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, Decentralized Clinical Trials for Drugs, Biological Products, and Devices (draft, 2023),https://www.fda.gov/regulatory-information/search-fda-guidance-documents/decentralized-clinical-trials-drugs-biological-products-and-devices (last visited Nov. 2, 2023).

Executive Yuan Promotes Free Economic Demonstration Zone

I.Background To promote more liberal and internationalized development of Taiwan economy, Premier of Executive Yuan approved the “Free Economic Demonstration Zone Plan” on April 26, 2013. Meanwhile, an Executive Yuan Working Group on Promotion of Economic Demonstration Zone is set up to accelerate the mapping out of the promotion programs as well as detailed action plans. The first phase of the Free Economic Demonstration Zone is to be officially initiated in July. According to the “Free Economic Demonstration Zone Plan”, the relevant laws and provisions regarding the flowing of human and financial capitals, and of logistics, will be loosen up to a great degree, based on the core ideas of liberalization, internationalization, and forwardness. Other related measures such as offering of lands and taxation would also be made, in order to attract capitals from both the inside and outside of the country. In addition, the Free Economic Demonstration Zone will first develop economic activities such as intelligent computing, international medicine services, value-added agriculture and cooperation among industries, to accelerate the transformation of the industrial structure of Taiwan. In order to construe an excellent environment for business of full liberalization and internationalization, the promotion strategies will be focused on “break-through of legal frameworks and innovations of management mechanisms”. II.Content of the Plan To accelerate the promotion process, the Free Economic Demonstration Zone will be conducted in two phases. The first phase is centered on the existing free trade port areas, including five ports and one airport, incorporated with the nature of “being inside the country border but outside the tariff zone”. All the industrial parks in the near counties and cities will also be integrated. The promotion will be set out simultaneously in the north, middle and south of Taiwan. The effects of the promotion are expected to be magnified by fully utilizing the resources and the unique characters of industries of each region. Moreover, the promulgation of a special legislation on the Free Economic Demonstration Zone would be facilitated in the future. After this special legislation is passed, the set-ups of demonstration zones can be applied by authorities either of central or of local government and the related promotion works of the second phase will be unfolded immediately. According to the Executive Yuan, the Free Economic Demonstration Zone will be beneficial in terms of creating positive conditions for Taiwan to participate in regional trade organizations and attract both local and foreign investment, injecting new movement into the economic growth of Taiwan. III.Recent Development In addition, on August 8, 2013, relevant discussions on “Furtherance Plan for Free Economic Demonstration Zone Phase One” are further unfolded in the Executive Yuan conference. In addition, the Premier also indicates, that the furtherance of the Free Economic Demonstration Zone (hereafter: FEDZ) is divided into two phases. The first phase starts from the moment that the Plan is approved till the related special legislation is passed and promulgated. In this phase, the relevant tasks can be achieved through the ways of promulgation of administrative orders. On the other hand, the tasks concerning taxation benefits and other parts that involve legislation will not able to be initiated till the second phase of the Plan. For those tasks, the Council for Economic Planning and Development is asked to complete the drafting of this special legislation and related procedures for registering it into the Executive Yuan, together with the Ministry of Economic Affairs and other concerned agencies, in the hope that the related legislation works of the Executive Yuan can be completed before the end of this year. In respect of “Furtherance Plan for Free Economic Demonstration Zone Phase One”, Premier Jiang further points out, that FEDZ is a model incorporates the concept of “being inside the country border but outside the tariff zone” and the idea of “combining the stores upfront and the factories behind, outsourcing manufactures”. In this way, the hinterland of a port can be expended and magnified effects to be achieved through using the resources provided by the factory in behind. Under this pattern, the expansion effects that cities and counties such as New Taipei City and Changhua Country fight for, can be further extended by this concept of “factories in the back”. As for Port of Anping, over which Tainan City government has proactively fought for, can be listed as a demonstration zone once the Executive Yuan approved it as free trade port zone. In the future, other places that are with forward-looking industry and suitable can still be enlisted. Premier Jiang further expresses that, there are four demonstration industries in the first phase, including intelligent computing, international medicine services, value-added agriculture and cooperation among industries. Yet, he also points out that the demonstration of liberalized economy is a concept of “4+N”. It means that the demonstration will not be limited to the scope of these four industries. Other industries that match up with the idea of liberalization, internationalization and foresight can all be incorporated into FEDZ through continuing examination. Moreover, Premier Jiang later mentions on August 14th, that FEDZ is a crucial task for the government at this moment. He thus requests the Ministry of Economic Affairs, Ministry of Transportation and Communications, Ministry of Health and Welfare, and the Council of Agriculture, to enhance the training and service quality of staffers of the single service window of furtherance of FEDZ. Moreover, Premier Jiang additionally indicated in November, that the scope of the FEDZ will include Pingtung Agricultural Biotechnology Park and Kaohsiung Free Trade Port Area. The combination of the two will facilitate adding value to the agriculture in Taiwan and put momentum into quality agriculture, making the high-quality agricultural products of our country being sold to all over the world with swift logistic services. Premier Jiang also mentioned, that in order to avoid Taiwan being marginalized amid regional integrations of global economies, the government is facilitating industries of potentials by proactively promote the FEDZ. The current approach is to expend the original free trade port area with legislative bases, creating the demonstration zones of free economy by combing original establishments such as Pingtung Agricultural Biotechnology Park. If this approach and system is proved feasible, the next step would be promoting it to island-wide, making the whole nation open-up. IV.Conclusion In the past decade, the economic development in Taiwan, compared to neighboring economic zones such as Hong Kong, Korean or Singapore, was indeed stagnant. It is thus a positive move for the government to put great efforts in promoting FEDZ, in the hope that the liberalization and internationalization of the economy of this country can therefore be significantly improved. Yet, some commentators are of slightly more skeptical opinions, reminding that in terms of the tax relaxation in the Plan, similar approach was already taken by the government before, which did not lead to the expected outcome. In sum, it still remains as a continuing task for us and for the administration as well, to ponder on how Taiwan can find out its own unique strength in the face of global competition. How we can attract more international partners, to create mutual economic benefits. The FEDZ is undoubtedly a first step. Nevertheless, challenges are still ahead of the government, as to how to take many more steps in the future, in order to make Taiwan to march on the stage of the world again.

The Tax Benefit of “Act for Establishment and Administration of Science Parks” and the Relational Norms for Innovation

The Tax Benefit of “Act for Establishment and Administration of Science Parks” and the Relational Norms for Innovation   “Act for Establishment and Administration of Science Parks” was promulgated in 1979, and was amended entirely in May 15, 2018, announced in June 6. The title was revised from “Act for Establishment and Administration of Science ‘Industrial’ Parks” to “Act for Establishment and Administration of Science Parks” (it would be called “the Act” in this article). It was a significant transition from traditional manufacture into technological innovation.   For encouraging different innovative technology enter into the science park, there is tax benefit in the Act. When the park enterprises import machines, equipment, material and so on from foreign country, the import duties, commodity tax, and business tax shall be exempted; moreover, when the park enterprises export products and services, it will have given favorable business and commodity tax free.[1] Furthermore, the park bureaus also exempt collection of land rent.[2] If they have approval for importing or exporting products, they do not need to apply for permission.[3] In the sub-law, there is also regulations of bonding operation.[4] To sum up, for applying the benefit of the act, enterprises approved for establishment in science parks still require to manufacture products. Such regulations are confined to industrial industry. Innovative companies dedicate in software, big data, or customer service, rarely gain benefits from taxation.   In other norms,[5] there are also tax deduction or exemption for developing innovative industries. Based on promoting innovation, the enterprises following the laws of environmental protection, laborers’ safety, food safety and sanitation,[6] or investing in brand-new smart machines for their own utilize,[7] or licensing their intellectual property rights,[8] can deduct from its taxable income. In addition, the research creators from academic or research institutions,[9] or employee,[10] can declare deferral of the income tax payable for the shares distributed. In order to assist new invested innovative enterprises,[11] there are also relational benefit of tax. For upgrading the biotech and new pharmaceuticals enterprises, when they invest in human resource training, research and development, they can have deductible corporate income tax payable.[12] There is also tax favored benefits for small and medium enterprises in using of land, experiment of research, technology stocks, retaining of surplus, and additional employees hiring.[13] The present norms of tax are not only limiting in space or products but also encouraging in “research”. In other word, in each steps of the research of innovation, the enterprises still need to manufacture products from their own technology, fund and human resources. If the government could encourage open innovation with favored taxation, it would strengthen the capability of research and development for innovative enterprises.   Supporting the innovation by taxation, the government can achieve the goal of scientific development more quickly and encourage them accepting guidance. “New York State Business Incubator and Innovation Hot Spot Support Act” can be an example, [14]the innovative enterprises accepting the guidance from incubators will have the benefit of tax on “personal income”, “sales and use” and “corporation franchise”. Moreover, focusing on key industries and exemplary cases, there are also the norms of tax exemption and tax abatement in China for promoting the development of technology.[15]The benefit of tax is not only in research but also in “the process of research”.   To sum up, the government of Taiwan provides the benefit of tax for advancing the competition of outcomes in market, and for propelling the development of innovation. In order to accelerate the efficiency of scientific research, the government could draw lessons from America and China for enacting the norms about the benefit of tax and the constitution of guidance. [1] The Act §23. [2] Id. §24. [3] Id. §25. [4] Regulations Governing the Bonding Operations in Science Parks. [5] Such as Act for Development of Small and Medium Enterprises, Statute for Industrial Innovation, Act for the Development of Biotech and New Pharmaceuticals Industry. [6] Statute for Industrial Innovation §10. [7] Id. §10-1. [8] Id. §12-1. [9] Id. §12-2. [10] Id. §19-1. [11] Id. §23-1, §23-2, §23-3. [12] Act for the Development of Biotech and New Pharmaceuticals Industry §5, §6, §7. [13] Act for Development of Small and Medium Enterprises Chapter 4: §33 to §36-3. [14] New York State Department of Taxation and Finance Taxpayer Guidance Division, New York State Business Incubator and Innovation Hot Spot Support Act, Technical Memorandum TSB-M-14(1)C, (1)I, (2)S, at 1-6 (March 7, 2014), URL:http://www.wnyincubators.com/content/Innovation%20Hot%20Spot%20Technical%20Memorandum.pdf (last visited:December 18, 2019). [15] Enterprise Income Tax Law of the People’s Republic of China Chapter 4 “Preferential Tax Treatments”: §25 to §36 (2008 revised).

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